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Minggu, 01 Oktober 2017

Worldwide trends #CatalanReferendum

Catalan language From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Catala" redirects here. For the ship, see SS Catala. Wiki letter w.svg This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (August 2017) Catalan Catalan–Valencian–Balearic català Pronunciation [kətəˈla] (Eastern) ⁓ [kataˈla] (Western) Native to Andorra, France, Italy, Spain Native speakers 4.1 million [1] (2012) L2 speakers: 5.1 million in Spain (2012)[1] Language family Indo-European Italic Romance Western Gallo-Romance[2] Occitano-Romance[2] Catalan Early form Old Catalan Standard forms Catalan (regulated by the IEC) Valencian (regulated by the AVL) Writing system Latin (Catalan alphabet) Catalan Braille Signed forms Signed Catalan Official status Official language in 1 country[show] 3 communities of Spain[show] 1 organisation[show] Recognised minority language in 3 dependencies[show] Regulated by Institut d'Estudis Catalans Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Language codes ISO 639-1 ca ISO 639-2 cat ISO 639-3 cat Glottolog stan1289[3] Linguasphere 51-AAA-e Catalan Countries.svg This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Catalan language Overview History Old Catalan Grammar Orthography Alphabet Braille Phonology History Catalan Countries Dialects Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Northwestern Valencian Grammar Nouns Personal pronouns Verbs conjugation Organizations IEC AVL IRL FRL v t e Catalan (/ˈkætəlæn/;[4] autonym: català [kətəˈla] or [kataˈla]) is a Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the national and only official language of Andorra,[5] and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian). It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero[6]. These territories are often called Catalan Countries. Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees. 19th-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival,[7][8] culminating in the early 1900s. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology and pronunciation 2 History 2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Start of the modern era 2.3 French state: 19th to 20th centuries 2.4 Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries 2.5 Present day 3 Classification and relationship with other Romance languages 3.1 Relationship with other Romance languages 4 Geographic distribution 4.1 Catalan-speaking territories 4.2 Number of speakers 4.2.1 Level of knowledge 4.2.2 Social use 4.2.3 Native language 5 Phonology 5.1 Vowels 5.2 Consonants 5.3 Phonological evolution 6 Sociolinguistics 6.1 Preferential subjects of study 7 Dialects 7.1 Overview 7.2 Pronunciation 7.2.1 Vowels 7.2.2 Consonants 7.3 Morphology 7.4 Vocabulary 8 Standards 9 Status of Valencian 10 Vocabulary 10.1 Word choices 10.2 Latin and Greek loanwords 10.3 Word formation 11 Writing system 12 Grammar 12.1 Gender and number inflection 12.2 Determiners 12.3 Personal pronouns 12.4 Verbs 12.5 Syntax 13 Catalan names 14 Sample text 15 Loanwords in Catalan and English 16 See also 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 External links Etymology and pronunciation[edit] Main article: Catalonia § Etymology and pronunciation Catalan Countries (Països Catalans): NE modern Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community and Balearic Islands), SE. France (Roussillon, touching the Pyrenees) and Comune of Alghero (NW coast of Sardinia, Island belonging to Italy) The Crown of Aragon in 1443. King James the Conqueror [1208-1276] dictated his autobiographical chronicles entirely in Catalan. A small part of these vast territories are what we call nowadays the Catalan Countries. The word Catalan derives from the territory of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. The main theory suggests that Catalunya (Latin Gathia Launia) derives from the name Gothia or Gauthia ("Land of the Goths"), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Catalonia theoretically derived.[9][10] In English, the term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelaner, followed in the 15th century as Catellain (from French). It is attested a language name since at least 1652. Catalan can be pronounced as /ˈkætəlæn/, /kætəˈlæn/ or /ˈkætələn/.[4] The endonym is pronounced /kə.təˈɫa/ in the Eastern Catalan dialects, and /ka.taˈɫa/ in the Western dialects. In the Valencian Community, the term valencià (/va.len.siˈa/) is frequently used instead. The names "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two names for the same language.[11][12] See also status of Valencian below. History[edit] Further information: History of Catalan Homilies d'Organyà (12th century) Fragment of the Greuges de Guitard Isarn (ca. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan,[13][14] predating the famous Homilies d'Organyà by a century Linguistic map Southwestern Europe.gif Middle Ages[edit] Further information: Old Catalan and Phonological history of Catalan By the 9th century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees, as well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the south.[8] From the 8th century onwards the Catalan counts extended their territory southwards and westwards at the expense of the Muslims, bringing their language with them.[8] This process was given definitive impetus with the separation of the County of Barcelona from the Carolingian Empire in 988.[8] In the 11th century, documents written in macaronic Latin begin to show Catalan elements,[14] with texts written almost completely in Romance appearing by 1080.[14] Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries.[15] During the 11th and 12th centuries the Catalan rulers expanded up to north of the Ebro river,[8] and in the 13th century they conquered the Land of Valencia and the Balearic Islands.[8] The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the 14th century. The language also reached Murcia, which became Spanish-speaking in the 15th century.[16] In the Low Middle Ages, Catalan went through a golden age, reaching a peak of maturity and cultural richness.[8] Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull (1232–1315), the Four Great Chronicles (13th–14th centuries), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March (1397–1459).[8] By the 15th century, the city of Valencia had become the sociocultural center of the Crown of Aragon, and Catalan was present all over the Mediterranean world.[8] During this period, the Royal Chancery propagated a highly standardized language.[8] Catalan was widely used as an official language in Sicily until the 15th century, and in Sardinia until the 17th.[16] During this period, the language was what Costa Carreras terms "one of the 'great languages' of medieval Europe".[8] Martorell's outstanding[8] novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc (1490) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work.[8] The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan.[17][8] Start of the modern era[edit] With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon (1479), the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious[16] and marked the start of the decline of the Catalan.[8][7] Starting in the 16th century, Catalan literature came under the influence of Spanish, and the urban and literary classes became bilingual.[16] With the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region.[5][18] Shortly after the French Revolution (1789), the French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against the regional languages of France, such as Catalan, Alsatian, Breton, Occitan, Flemish, and Basque. French state: 19th to 20th centuries[edit] Official Decree Prohibiting the Catalan Language in France "Speak French, be clean", school wall in Ayguatébia-Talau, 2010 See also: Language policy in France, Vergonha, and Patois Following the French capture of Algeria (1833), that region saw several waves of Catalan-speaking settlers. People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca. Their speech was known as patuet. By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia (as Pieds-Noirs) or Alacant.[19] Nowadays, France only recognizes French as an official language. Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the department[20] and seeks to further promote it in public life and education. Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries[edit] See also: Nueva Planta decrees, Language politics in Spain under Franco, and Anti-Catalanism The decline of Catalan continued in the 16th and 17th centuries. The defeat of the pro-Habsburg coalition in the War of Spanish Succession (1714) initiated a series of laws which, among other centralizing measures, imposed the use of Spanish in legal documentation all over Spain. In parallel, however, the 19th century saw a Catalan literary revival (Renaixença), which has continued up to the present day.[5] This period starts with Aribau's Ode to the Homeland (1833); followed in the second half of the 19th century, and the early 20th by the work of Verdaguer (poetry), Oller (realist novel), and Guimerà (drama).[21] In the 19th century, the region of Carche, in the province of Murcia was repopulated with Catalan speakers from the Land of Valencia.[22] The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted.[5] Despite orthographic standardization in 1913 and the official status of the language during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39) the Francoist dictatorship banned the use of Catalan in schools and in the public administration between 1939–75.[23][7] Present day[edit] Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalizated as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige.[24] In Catalonia, there is an unparalleled large, bilingual, European, non-state speech community.[24] The teaching of Catalan is mandatory in all schools,[5] but it is possible to use Spanish for studying in the public education system of Catalonia in two situations – if the teacher assigned to a class chooses to use Spanish, or during the learning process of one or more recently arrived immigrant students.[25] There is also some intergenerational shift towards Catalan.[5] According to the Statistical Institute of Catalonia, in 2013 the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia, after Spanish, as a native or self-defining language: 7% of the population self-identifies with both Catalan and Spanish equally, 36.4% with Catalan and 47.5% only Spanish.[26] In 2003 the same studies concluded no language preference for self-identification within the population above 15 years old: 5% self-identified with both languages, 44.3% with Catalan and 47.5 with Spanish.[27] Comparing these statistics with the same study made by this official institute 10 years after in 2013, we notice the fast decline Catalan language has had in a short time, mostly due to the fast increase of non-Catalan mainly moslem immigration. In order to integrate newcomers, the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia's official Autonomous government) spends part of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories.[28] In Andorra, Catalan has always been the sole official language.[5] Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several policies favouring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education.[5] On the other hand, there are several language shift processes currently taking place. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older (as of 2004).[5] Catalan is studied as a foreign language by 30% of the primary education students, and by 15% of the secondary.[5] The cultural association La Bressola promotes a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan language immersion programs. In the Alicante province Catalan is being replaced by Spanish, and in Alghero by Italian.[24] There are also well ingrained diglossic attitudes against Catalan in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands.[5] Classification and relationship with other Romance languages[edit] Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria (not on socio-functional ones). Koryakov (2001) includes Catalan in Occitano-Romance, distinct from Iberian Romance.[29] The ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among Spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal. According to Pèire Bèc, its specific classification is as follows: Romance languages Italo-Western languages Western Romance languages Gallo-Iberian languages Gallo-Romance languages (alternatively classified as Iberian Romance language) Occitano-Romance languages (alternatively classified as East Iberian language) Catalan language Catalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Occitan language (see also differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages). Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages. Relationship with other Romance languages[edit] Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, and Spanish).[22] However, despite being spoken mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, Catalan has marked differences with the Iberian Romance group (Spanish and Portuguese) in terms of pronunciation, grammar, and especially vocabulary; showing instead its closest affinity with Occitan[30][31][32] and to a lesser extent Gallo-Romance (French, Franco-Provençal, Gallo-Italian).[33][34][35][36][30][31][32] According to Ethnologue, the lexical similarity between Catalan and other Romance languages is: 87% with Italian; 85% with Portuguese and Spanish; 76% with Ladin; 75% with Sardinian; and 73% with Romanian.[37] Lexical comparison of 24 words among Western Romance languages: 17 cognates with Gallo-Romance, 5 isoglosses with Iberian Romance, 3 isoglosses with Occitan, and 1 unique word.[34][35] Gloss Catalan Occitan (Campidanese) Sardinian Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian cousin cosí cosin fradili cugino cousin primo primo văr brother germà fraire fradi fratello frère hermano irmão frate nephew nebot nebot nebodi nipote neveu sobrino sobrinho nepot summer estiu estiu beranu estate été verano, estío[38] verão, estio[38] vară evening vespre ser, vèspre seru sera soir tarde-noche[39] tarde, serão[39] seară morning matí matin mangianu mattina matin mañana manhã, matina dimineață frying pan paella padena paella padella poêle sartén frigideira, fritadeira tigaie bed llit lièch, lèit letu letto lit cama, lecho cama, leito pat bird ocell aucèl pilloni uccello oiseau ave, pájaro ave, pássaro pasăre dog gos, ca gos, canh cani cane chien perro, can cão, cachorro câine plum pruna pruna pruna prugna prune ciruela ameixa prună butter mantega bodre burru, butiru burro beurre mantequilla, manteca manteiga unt Gloss Catalan Occitan (Campidanese) Sardinian Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian piece tros tròç, petaç arrogu pezzo morceau, pièce pedazo, trozo[40] pedaço, bocado bucată gray gris gris canu grigio gris gris, pardo[41] cinza, gris gri hot calent caud callenti caldo chaud caliente quente cald too much massa tròp tropu troppo trop demasiado demais, demasiado prea to want voler vòler bolli(ri) volere vouloir querer querer a voi to take prendre prene, prendre pigai prendere prendre tomar, prender tomar, levar a prinde, a lua to pray pregar pregar pregai pregare prier rezar/rogar rezar, orar, pregar a se ruga to ask demanar/preguntar demandar dimandai, preguntai domandare demander pedir, preguntar pedir, perguntar a cere, a întreba to search cercar/buscar cercar circai cercare chercher buscar procurar, buscar a cerceta, a căuta to arrive arribar arribar arribai arrivare arriver llegar, arribar chegar a ajunge to speak parlar parlar chistionnai, fueddai parlare parler hablar, parlar falar, palrear a vorbi to eat menjar manjar pappai mangiare manger comer (manyar in lunfardo; papear in slang) comer (papar in slang) a mânca Catalan and Spanish cognates with different meanings[36] Latin Catalan Spanish accostare acostar "to bring closer" acostar "to put to bed" levare llevar "to remove; wake up" llevar "to take" trahere traure "to remove" traer "to bring" circare cercar "to search" cercar "to fence" collocare colgar "to bury" colgar "to hang" mulier muller "wife" mujer "woman or wife" During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship (1939–1975), the Catalan language has often been degraded as a mere dialect of Spanish.[31][32] This view, based on political and ideological considerations, has no linguistic validity.[31][32] Spanish and Catalan have important differences in their sound systems, lexicon, and grammatical features, placing the language in a number of respects closer to Occitan (and French).[31][32] There is evidence that, at least from the a.d. 2nd century, the vocabulary and phonology of Roman Tarraconensis was different from the rest of Roman Hispania.[30] Differentiation has arisen generally because Spanish, Asturian, and Galician-Portuguese share certain peripheral archaisms (Spanish hervir, Asturian/Portuguese ferver vs. Catalan bullir, Occitan bolir "to boil") and innovatory regionalisms (Sp novillo, Ast nuviellu vs. Cat torell, Oc taurèl "bullock"), while Catalan has a shared history with the Western Romance innovative core, especially Occitan.[42][30] Like all Romance languages, Catalan has a handful of native words which are rare or only found in Catalan. These include: verbs: cōnfīgere ‘to fasten; transfix’ > confegir ‘to compose, write up’, congemināre > conjuminar ‘to combine, conjugate’, de-ex-somnitare > deixondar/-ir ‘to wake; awaken’, dēnsāre ‘to thicken; crowd together’ > desar ‘to save, keep’, īgnōrāre > enyorar ‘to miss, yearn, pine for’, indāgāre ‘to investigate, track’ > Old Catalan enagar ‘to incite, induce’, odiāre > OCat ujar ‘to exhaust, fatigue’, pācificāre > apaivagar ‘to appease, mollify’, repudiāre > rebutjar ‘to reject, refuse’; nouns: brīsa > brisa ‘pomace’, buda > boga ‘reedmace’, catarrhu > cadarn ‘catarrh’, congesta > congesta ‘snowdrift’, dēlīrium > deler ‘ardor, passion’, fretu > freu ‘brake’, lābem > (a)llau ‘avalanche’, ōra > vora ‘edge, border’, pistrice > pestriu ‘fish species’, prūna ‘live coal’ > espurna ‘spark’, tardātiōnem > tardaó > tardor ‘autumn’.[43] The Gothic superstrate has had different outcomes in Spanish and Catalan. For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and pols "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien, of Germanic origin.[30] The same happens with Arabic loanwords. Thus, Catalan alfàbia "large earthenware jar" and rajola "tile", of Arabic origin, contrast with Spanish tinaja and teja, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan oli "oil" and oliva "olive", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish aceite and aceituna.[30] However, the Arabic element in Spanish is generally much more prevalent.[30] Situated between two large linguistic blocks (Iberian Romance and Gallo-Romance), Catalan has many unique lexical choices, such as enyorar "to miss somebody", apaivagar "to calm down somebody", or rebutjar "reject".[30] Geographic distribution[edit] Catalan-speaking territories[edit] Main article: Catalan Countries Catalan-speaking territories in dark gray; non Catalan-speaking territories belonging to regions with a Catalan-speaking majority, in light gray Northern CataloniaCataloniaAlgheroLa FranjaValencian CommunityCarcheSardinia (Italy)Aragon (Spain)Murcia (Spain)FranceAndorraBalearic Islands Catalan-speaking territories are sometimes called the Països Catalans (Catalan Countries), a denomination based on cultural affinity and common heritage, that has also had a subsequent political interpretation but no official status. Various interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions. Territories where Catalan is spoken[22] State Territory Catalan name Notes Andorra Andorra Andorra Andorra A sovereign state where Catalan is the national and the sole official language. The Andorrans speak a Western Catalan variety. France Catalonia Northern Catalonia Catalunya Nord Roughly corresponding to the département of Pyrénées-Orientales.[22] Spain Catalonia Catalonia Catalunya In the Aran Valley (northwest corner of Catalonia), in addition to Occitan, which is the local language, Catalan, Spanish and French are also spoken.[22] Valencian Community Valencian Community Comunitat Valenciana Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century.[22] The Western Catalan variety spoken there is known as "Valencian". Aragon La Franja La Franja A part of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, specifically a strip bordering Western Catalonia. It comprises the comarques of Ribagorça, Llitera, Baix Cinca, and Matarranya. Balearic Islands Balearic Islands Illes Balears Comprising the islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Eivissa and Formentera. Region of Murcia Carche El Carxe A small region of the Autonomous Community of Murcia, settled in the 19th century.[22] Italy Siñal d'Aragón.svg Alghero L'Alguer A city in the Province of Sassari, on the island of Sardinia, where the peculiar Alguerese dialect is spoken. Number of speakers[edit] The number of people known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used. A 2004 study did not count the total number of speakers, but estimated a total of 9–9.5 million by matching the percentage of speakers to the population of each area where Catalan is spoken.[44] The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan.[45] These figures only reflect potential speakers; today it is the native language of only 35.6% of the Catalan population.[46] According to Ethnologue, Catalan had four million native speakers and five million second-language speakers in 2012.[37] The most important social characteristic of the Catalan language is that all the areas where it is spoken are bilingual in practice: together with the French language in Roussillon, with Italian in Alghero, with Spanish and French in Andorra and with Spanish in the rest of the territories. Territory State Understand 1[47] Can speak 2[47] Catalonia Spain 6,502,880 5,698,400 Valencian Community Spain 3,448,780 2,407,951 Balearic Islands Spain 852,780 706,065 Catalonia Roussillon France 203,121 125,621 Andorra Andorra 75,407 61,975 Aragon La Franja (Aragon) Spain 47,250 45,000 Siñal d'Aragón.svg Alghero (Sardinia) Italy 20,000 17,625 Region of Murcia Carche (Murcia) Spain No data No data Total Catalan-speaking territories 11,150,218 9,062,637 Rest of World No data 350,000 Total 11,150,218 9,412,637 1.^ The number of people who understand Catalan includes those who can speak it. 2.^ Figures relate to all self-declared capable speakers, not just native speakers. Level of knowledge[edit] Area Speak Understand Read Write Catalonia 84.7 97.4 90.5 62.3 Valencian Community 57.5 78.1 54.9 32.5 Balearic Islands 74.6 93.1 79.6 46.9 Roussillon 37.1 65.3 31.4 10.6 Andorra 78.9 96.0 89.7 61.1 Franja Oriental of Aragón 88.8 98.5 72.9 30.3 Alghero 67.6 89.9 50.9 28.4 (% of the population 15 years old and older). Social use[edit] Area At home Outside home Catalonia 45 51 Valencian Community 37 32 Balearic Islands 44 41 Roussillon 1 1 Andorra 38 51 Franja Oriental of Aragón 70 61 Alghero 8 4 (% of the population 15 years old and older). Native language[edit] Area People Percentage Catalonia 2 813 000 38.5% Valencian Community 1 047 000 21.1% Balearic Islands 392 000 36.1% Andorra 26 000 33.8% Franja Oriental of Aragon 33 000 70.2% Roussillon 35 000 8.5% Alghero 8 000 20% TOTAL 4 353 000 31.2% [48][49][50] Phonology[edit] Main article: Catalan phonology The Catalan phonology varies depending on the dialect. Notable features include:[51] Marked contrast of the vowel pairs /ɛ e/ and /ɔ o/, like in other Western Romance languages, except Spanish.[51] Lack of diphthongization of Latin short ĕ, ŏ, like in Galician and Portuguese, and unlike French, Spanish and Italian.[51] Abundance of diphthongs containing /w/, like in Galician and Portuguese.[51] In contrast with other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words; and those ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters.[51] Also, Catalan has final obstruent devoicing, thus featuring many couplets like amic "(male friend") vs. amiga ("female friend").[51] Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language.[52] The descriptions below are mostly for this variety.[53] For the differences in pronunciation of the different dialects, see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article. Vowels[edit] Vowels of Standard Eastern Catalan[54] Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.[51] Balearic also has instances of stressed /ə/.[55] Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,[56] and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/.[57] In Central Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > [ə]; /o ɔ u/ > [u]; /i/ remains distinct.[58] The other dialects have different vowel reduction processes (see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article). Examples of vowel reduction processes in Central Catalan[59] The root is stressed in the first word and unstressed in the second Front vowels Back vowels Word pair gel ("ice") gelat ("ice cream") pedra ("stone") pedrera ("quarry") banya ("he bathes") banyem ("we bathe") cosa ("thing") coseta ("little thing") tot ("everything") total ("total") IPA transcription [ˈʒɛl] [ʒəˈlat] [ˈpeðɾə] [pəˈðɾeɾə] [ˈbaɲə] [bəˈɲɛm] [ˈkɔzə] [kuˈzɛtə] [ˈtot] [tuˈtal] Consonants[edit] Catalan consonants[60] Bilabial Alveolar / Dental Palatal Velar Nasal m n ɲ ŋ Plosive voiceless p t c ~ k voiced b d ɟ ~ ɡ Affricate voiceless ts tʃ voiced dz dʒ Fricative voiceless f s ʃ voiced (v) z ʒ Approximant central j w lateral l ʎ Tap ɾ Trill r The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative, shared with most modern Western Romance languages. /l/ has a velarized allophone in syllable coda position in most dialects.[61] However, /l/ is velarized irrespective of position in Eastern dialects like Majorcan[62] and standard Eastern Catalan. /v/ occurs in Balearic,[63] Alguerese, standard Valencian and some areas in southern Catalonia.[64] It has merged with /b/ elsewhere.[65] Voiced obstruents undergo final-obstruent devoicing: /b/ > [p], /d/ > [t], /ɡ/ > [k].[66] Voiced stops become lenited to approximants in syllable onsets, after continuants: /b/ >[β], /d/ > [ð], /ɡ/ > [ɣ].[67] Exceptions include /d/ after lateral consonants, and /b/ after /f/. In coda position, these sounds are realized as stops,[68] except in some Valencian dialects where they are lenited.[69] There is some confusion in the literature about the precise phonetic characteristics of /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/. Some sources[70] describe them as "postalveolar". Others[71][72] as "back alveolo-palatal", implying that the characters ⟨ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ⟩ would be more accurate. However, in all literature only the characters for palato-alveolar affricates and fricatives are used, even when the same sources use ⟨ɕ ʑ⟩ for other languages like Polish and Chinese.[73][74][75] The distribution of the two rhotics /r/ and /ɾ/ closely parallels that of Spanish. Between vowels, the two contrast, but they are otherwise in complementary distribution: in the onset of the first syllable in a word, [r] appears unless preceded by a consonant. Dialects vary in regards to rhotics in the coda with Western Catalan generally featuring [ɾ] and Central Catalan dialects featuring a weakly trilled [r] unless it precedes a vowel-initial word in the same prosodic unit, in which case [ɾ] appears.[76] In careful speech, /n/, /m/, /l/ may be geminated. Geminated /ʎ/ may also occur.[70] Some analyze intervocalic [r] as the result of gemination of a single rhotic phoneme.[77] This is similar to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese rhotics.[78] Phonological evolution[edit] Main article: Phonological history of Catalan Sociolinguistics[edit] Catalan sociolinguistics studies the situation of Catalan in the world and the different varieties that this language presents. It is a subdiscipline of Catalan philology and other affine studies and has as an objective to analyse the relation between the Catalan language, the speakers and the close reality (including the one of other languages in contact). Preferential subjects of study[edit] Dialects of Catalan Variations of Catalan by class, gender, profession, age and level of studies Process of linguistic normalisation Relations between Catalan and Spanish or French Perception on the language of Catalan speakers and non-speakers Presence of Catalan in several fields: tagging, public function, media, professional sectors Dialects[edit] Main article: Catalan dialects Overview[edit] Main dialects of Catalan[79][80][81] The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages;[36] both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.[82] Mutual intelligibility between dialects is very high,[22][83][52] estimates ranging from 90% to 95%.[84] The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect.[36] Catalan is split in two major dialectal blocks: Eastern Catalan, and Western Catalan.[52][82] The main difference lies in the treatment of unstressed a and e; which have merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but which remain distinct as /a/ and /e/ in Western dialects.[36][52] There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, and vocabulary.[22] Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian; the Eastern block comprises four dialects: Central Catalan, Balearic, Rossellonese, and Alguerese.[52] Each dialect can be further subdivided in several subdialects. The terms "Catalan" and "Valencian" (respectively used in Catalonia and the Valencian Community) are two varieties of the same language.[85] There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Institute of Catalan Studies in Catalonia and the Valencian Academy of the Language in the Valencian Community. Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers.[52] It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona.[52] Catalan has an inflectional grammar. Nouns have two genders (masculine, feminine), and two numbers (singular, plural). Pronouns additionally can have a neuter gender, and some are also inflected for case and politeness, and can be combined in very complex ways. Verbs are split in several paradigms and are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, mood, and gender. In terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages.[51] Main dialectal divisions of Catalan[52][86] Block Western Catalan Eastern Catalan Dialect Northwestern Valencian Central Balearic Northern/Rossellonese Alguerese Area Spain France Italy Provinces of Lleida, western half of Tarragona, La Franja Autonomous community of Valencia Provinces of Barcelona, eastern half of Tarragona, most of Girona Balearic islands Roussillon/Northern Catalonia City of Alghero in Sardinia Pronunciation[edit] Vowels[edit] Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.[51] Balearic has also instances of stressed /ə/.[55] Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,[56] and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/.[57] In Eastern Catalan (except Majorcan), unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > [ə]; /o ɔ u/ > [u]; /i/ remains distinct.[58] There are a few instances of unreduced [e], [o] in some words.[58] Alguerese has lowered [ə] to [a]. In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [o], with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan.[87] In Western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five: /e ɛ/ > [e]; /o ɔ/ > [o]; /a u i/ remain distinct.[88][89] This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.[88] Some Western dialects present further reduction or vowel harmony in some cases.[88][90] Central, Western, and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed /e/ and /ɛ/.[57] Usually, words with /ɛ/ in Central Catalan correspond to /ə/ in Balearic and /e/ in Western Catalan.[57] Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well.[vague][57] As a result, Central Catalan has a much higher incidence of /ɛ/.[57] Different incidence of stressed /e/, /ə/, /ɛ/[57] Word Western Majorcan Eastern except Majorcan set ("thirst") /ˈset/ /ˈsət/ /ˈsɛt/ ven ("he sells") /ˈven/ /ˈvən/ /ˈbɛn/ General differences in the pronunciation of unstressed vowels in different dialects[52][91] Word Western Catalan Eastern Catalan Northwestern Valencian Majorcan Central Northern mare ("mother") /ˈmaɾe/ /ˈmaɾə/ cançó ("song") /kanˈso/ /kənˈso/ posar ("to put") /poˈza(ɾ)/ /puˈza(ɾ)/ ferro ("iron") /ˈfɛro/ /ˈfɛru/ Detailed examples of vowel reduction processes in different dialects[59] Word pairs: the first with stressed root, the second with unstressed root Western Majorcan Central Front vowels gel ("ice") gelat ("ice cream") [ˈdʒɛl] [dʒeˈlat] [ˈʒɛl] [ʒəˈlat] [ˈʒɛl] [ʒəˈlat] pera ("pear") perera ("pear tree") [ˈpeɾa] [peˈɾeɾa] [ˈpəɾə] [pəˈɾeɾə] [ˈpɛɾə] [pəˈɾeɾə] pedra ("stone") pedrera ("quarry") [ˈpeðɾa] [peˈðɾeɾa] [ˈpeðɾə] [pəˈðɾeɾə] [ˈpeðɾə] [pəˈðɾeɾə] banya ("he bathes") banyem("we bathe") Majorcan: banyam("we bathe") [ˈbaɲa] [baˈɲem] [ˈbaɲə] [bəˈɲam] [ˈbaɲə] [bəˈɲɛm] Back vowels cosa ("thing") coseta ("little thing") [ˈkɔza] [koˈzeta] [ˈkɔzə] [koˈzətə] [ˈkɔzə] [kuˈzɛtə] tot ("everything") total ("total") [ˈtot] [toˈtal] [ˈtot] [toˈtal] [ˈtot] [tuˈtal] Consonants[edit] [icon] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2014) Morphology[edit] Western Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -e in verbs of the 1st conjugation and -∅ in verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in most of the Valencian Community, or -o in all verb conjugations in the Northern Valencian Community and Western Catalonia. E.g. parle, tem, sent (Valencian); parlo, temo, sento (Northwestern Catalan). Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -o, -i, or -∅ in all conjugations. E.g. parlo (Central), parl (Balearic), and parli (Northern), all meaning ('I speak'). 1st-person singular present indicative forms Conjugation Eastern Catalan Western Catalan Gloss Central Northern Balearic Valencian Northwestern 1st parlo parli parl parle or parlo parlo 'I speak' 2nd temo temi tem tem or temo temo 'I fear' 3rd pure sento senti sent sent or sento sento 'I feel', 'I hear' inchoative poleixo poleixi poleix or polesc polisc or pol(e)ixo pol(e)ixo 'I polish' Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -isc/-ixo, -ix, -ixen, -isca. Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -eixo, -eix, -eixen, -eixi. Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words. E.g. hòmens 'men', jóvens 'youth'. Eastern Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, loss of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words. E.g. homes 'men', joves 'youth'. Vocabulary[edit] Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.[30] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.[30] Selection of different words between Western and Eastern Catalan Gloss "mirror" "boy" "broom" "navel" "to exit" Eastern Catalan mirall noi escombra melic sortir Western Catalan espill xiquet granera llombrígol eixir Standards[edit] Main articles: Institut d'Estudis Catalans and Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans Written varieties Catalan (IEC) Valencian (AVL) gloss anglès anglés English conèixer conéixer to know treure traure take out néixer nàixer to be born càntir cànter pitcher rodó redó round meva meua my, mine ametlla ametla almond estrella estrela star cop colp hit llagosta llangosta lobster homes hòmens men servei servici service Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,[24] is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,[52][92] which is the most widely used dialect. Nevertheless, the standards of the Valencian Community and the Balearics admit alternative forms, mostly traditional ones, which are not current in eastern Catalonia.[92] The most notable difference between both standards is some tonic ⟨e⟩ accentuation, for instance: francès, anglès (IEC) – francés, anglés (AVL). Nevertheless, AVL's standard keeps the grave accent ⟨è⟩, without pronouncing this ⟨e⟩ as /ɛ/, in some words like: què ('what'), or València. Other divergences include the use of ⟨tl⟩ (AVL) in some words instead of ⟨tll⟩ like in ametla/ametlla ('almond'), espatla/espatlla ('back'), the use of elided demonstratives (este 'this', eixe 'that') in the same level as reinforced ones (aquest, aqueix) or the use of many verbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the rest of Western Catalan too, like subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in -ix- at the same level as -eix- or the priority use of -e morpheme in 1st person singular in present indicative (-ar verbs): jo compre instead of jo compro ('I buy'). In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section. In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing cantam as much as cantem ('we sing') but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be "cantam" in all fields. Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative: jo compr ('I buy'), jo tem ('I fear'), jo dorm ('I sleep'). In Alghero, the IEC has adapted its standard to the Alguerese dialect. In this standard one can find, among other features: the definite article lo instead of el, special possessive pronouns and determinants la mia ('mine'), lo sou/la sua ('his/her'), lo tou/la tua ('yours'), and so on, the use of -v- /v/ in the imperfect tense in all conjugations: cantava, creixiva, llegiva; the use of many archaic words, usual words in Alguerese: manco instead of menys ('less'), calqui u instead of algú ('someone'), qual/quala instead of quin/quina ('which'), and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns. In 2011, the Aragonese government passed a decree for the establishment of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon). The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja. Status of Valencian[edit] Catalan Wikisource has original text related to this article: AVL: Dictamen sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià Main articles: Valencian, Valencian language controversy, Blaverism, and Anti-Catalanism Subdialects of Valencian Valencian is classified as a Western dialect, along with the northwestern varieties spoken in Western Catalonia (provinces of Lleida and the western half of Tarragona).[52][86] The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible (ranging from 90% to 95%)[84] Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language. The official regulating body of the language of the Valencian Community, the Valencian Academy of Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) declares the linguistic unity between Valencian and Catalan varieties.[12] [T]he historical patrimonial language of the Valencian people, from a philological standpoint, is the same shared by the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Balearic islands, and Principality of Andorra. Additionally, it is the patrimonial historical language of other territories of the ancient Crown of Aragon [...] The different varieties of these territories constitute a language, that is, a "linguistic system" [...] From this group of varieties, Valencian has the same hierarchy and dignity as any other dialectal modality of that linguistic system [...] Ruling of the Valencian Language Academy of 9 February 2005, extract of point 1.[93][94] The AVL, created by the Valencian parliament, is in charge of dictating the official rules governing the use of Valencian, and its standard is based on the Norms of Castelló (Normes de Castelló). Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian an independent standard. Despite the position of the official organizations, an opinion poll carried out between 2001 and 2004[95] showed that the majority of the Valencian people consider Valencian different from Catalan. This position is promoted by people who do not use Valencian regularly.[24] Furthermore, the data indicates that younger generations educated in Valencian are much less likely to hold these views. A minority of Valencian scholars active in fields other than linguistics defends the position of the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian a standard independent from Catalan.[96] This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy. For example, during the drafting of the European Constitution in 2004, the Spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the latter two were identical.[97] Vocabulary[edit] Word choices[edit] Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.[30] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.[30] Literary Catalan allows the use of words from different dialects, except those of very restricted use.[30] However, from the 19th century onwards, there has been a tendency towards favoring words of Northern dialects to the detriment of others, even though nowadays there is a greater freedom of choice.[clarify][30] Latin and Greek loanwords[edit] Like other languages, Catalan has a large list of loanwords from Greek and Latin. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work.[30] In the 14th and 15th centuries Catalan had a far greater number of Greco-Latin loanwords than other Romance languages, as is attested for example in Roís de Corella's writings.[30] The incorporation of learned, or "bookish" words from its own ancestor language, Latin, into Catalan is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Catalan speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Catalan. Word formation[edit] The process of morphological derivation in Catalan follows the same principles as the other Romance languages,[98] where agglutination is common. Many times, several affixes are appended to a preexisting lexeme, and some sound alternations can occur, for example elèctric [əˈlɛktrik] ("electrical") vs. electricitat [ələktrisiˈtat]. Prefixes are usually appended to verbs, as in preveure ("foresee").[98] There is greater regularity in the process of word-compounding, where one can find compounded words formed much like those in English.[98] Common types of word compounds in Catalan[98] Type Example Gloss two nouns, the second assimilated to the first paper moneda "banknote paper" noun delimited by an adjective estat major "military staff" noun delimited by another noun and a preposition màquina d'escriure "typewriter" verb radical with a nominal object paracaigudes "parachute" noun delimited by an adjective, with adjectival value pit-roig "robin" (bird) Writing system[edit] The word novel·la ("novel") in a dictionary. The geminated L (l·l) is a distinctive character used in Catalan. Billboard in Barcelona (detail), showing the word il·lusió ("illusion") Main article: Catalan orthography Main forms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Modified forms À Ç È É Í Ï L·L Ò Ó Ú Ü Catalan uses the Latin script, with some added symbols and digraphs.[99] The Catalan orthography is systematic and largely phonologically based.[99] Pronunciation of Catalan special characters and digraphs (Central Catalan)[100] Pronunciation Examples[100] ç /s/ feliç [fəˈlis] ("happy") gu /ɡ/ ([ɡ]~[ɣ]) before i and e guerra [ˈɡɛrə] ("war") /ɡw/ elsewhere guant [ˈɡwan] ("glove") ig [tʃ] in final position raig [ˈratʃ] ("trickle") ix /ʃ/ ([jʃ] in some dialects) caixa [ˈkaʃə] ("box") ll /ʎ/ lloc [ʎɔk] ("place") l·l Normatively /l:/, but usually /l/ novel·la [nuˈβɛlə] ("novel") ny /ɲ/ Catalunya [kətəˈɫuɲə] ("Catalonia") qu /k/ before i and e qui [ˈki] ("who") /kw/ before other vowels quatre [ˈkwatrə] ("four") ss /s/ Intervocalic s is pronounced /z/ grossa [ˈɡɾɔsə] ("big-feminine)" casa [ˈkazə] ("house") tg, tj [ddʒ] fetge [ˈfeddʒə] ("liver"), mitjó [midˈdʒo] ("sock") tx [tʃ] despatx [dəsˈpatʃ] ("office") tz [ddz] dotze [ˈdoddzə] ("twelve") Letters and digraphs with contextually conditioned pronunciations (Central Catalan)[100] Notes Examples[100] c /s/ before i and e corresponds to ç in other contexts feliç ("happy-masculine-singular") - felices ("happy-feminine-plural") caço ("I hunt") - caces ("you hunt") g /ʒ/ before e and i corresponds to j in other positions envejar ("to envy") - envegen ("they envy") final g + stressed i, and final ig before other vowels, are pronounced [tʃ] corresponds to j~g or tj~tg in other positions boig ['bɔtʃ] ("mad-masculine") - boja ['bɔʒə] ("mad-feminine") - boges ['bɔʒəs] ("mad-feminine plural") desig [də'zitʃ] ("wish") - desitjar ("to wish") - desitgem ("we wish") gu /ɡ/ before e and i corresponds to g in other positions botiga ("shop") - botigues ("shops") gü /ɡw/ before e and i corresponds to gu in other positions llengua ("language") - llengües ("languages") qu /k/ before e and i corresponds to q in other positions vaca ("cow") - vaques ("cows") qü /kw/ before e and i corresponds to qu in other positions obliqua ("oblique-feminine") - obliqües ("oblique-feminine plural") x [ʃ]~[tʃ] initially and in onsets after a consonant [ʃ] after i otherwise, [ɡz] before stress, [ks] after xarxa [ˈʃarʃə] ("net") guix [ˈɡiʃ] ("chalk") exacte [əɡˈzaktə] ("exact"), fax [ˈfaks] ("fax") Grammar[edit] Main article: Catalan grammar The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Features include:[101] Use of definite and indefinite articles.[101] Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and articles are inflected for gender (masculine and feminine), and number (singular and plural). There is no case inflexion, except in pronouns.[101] Verbs are highly inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, and mood (including a subjunctive).[101] There are no modal auxiliaries.[101] Word order is freer than in English.[101] Gender and number inflection[edit] Gender and number inflection of the word gat ("cat") Regular noun with definite article: el gat ("the cat") masculine feminine singular el gat la gata plural els gats les gates Adjective with 4 forms: verd ("green") masculine feminine singular verd verda plural verds verdes Adjective with 3 forms: feliç ("happy") masculine feminine singular feliç plural feliços felices Adjective with 2 forms: indiferent ("indifferent") masculine feminine singular indiferent plural indiferents In gender inflection, the most notable feature is (compared to Portuguese, Spanish or Italian), the loss of the typical masculine suffix -o. Thus, the alternance of -o/-a, has been replaced by ø/-a.[51] There are only a few exceptions, like minso/minsa ("scarce").[51] Many not completely predictable morphological alternations may occur, such as:[51] Affrication: boig/boja ("insane") vs. lleig/lletja ("ugly") Loss of n: pla/plana ("flat") vs. segon/segona ("second") Final obstruent devoicing: sentit/sentida ("felt") vs. dit/dita ("said") Catalan has few suppletive couplets, like Italian and Spanish, and unlike French. Thus, Catalan has noi/noia ("boy"/"girl") and gall/gallina ("cock"/"hen"), whereas French has garçon/fille and coq/poule.[51] There is a tendency to abandon traditionally gender-invariable adjectives in favour of marked ones, something prevalent in Occitan and French. Thus, one can find bullent/bullenta ("boiling") in contrast with traditional bullent/bullent.[51] As in the other Western Romance languages, the main plural expression is the suffix -s, which may create morphological alternations similar to the ones found in gender inflection, albeit more rarely.[51] The most important one is the addition of -o- before certain consonant groups, a phonetic phenomenon that does not affect feminine forms: el pols/els polsos ("the pulse"/"the pulses") vs. la pols/les pols ("the dust"/"the dusts").[102] Determiners[edit] Sign in the town square of Begur, Catalonia, Spain. In Plaça de la vila (literally "square of the town"), since the noun vila ("town") is feminine singular, the definite article carries the corresponding form, la ("the"). Definite article in Standard Catalan (elided forms in brackets)[103] masculine feminine singular el (l') la (l') plural els les Contractions of the definite article preposition a de per article el al (a l') del (de l') pel (per l') els als dels pels Indefinite article masculine feminine singular un una plural uns unes The inflection of determinatives is complex, specially because of the high number of elisions, but is similar to the neighboring languages.[98] Catalan has more contractions of preposition + article than Spanish, like dels ("of + the [plural]"), but not as many as Italian (which has sul, col, nel, etc.).[98] Central Catalan has abandoned almost completely unstressed possessives (mon, etc.) in favour of constructions of article + stressed forms (el meu, etc.), a feature shared with Italian.[98] Personal pronouns[edit] Catalan stressed pronouns[104] singular plural 1st person jo, mi nosaltres 2nd person informal tu vosaltres formal vostè vostès respectful (vós)[105] 3rd person masculine ell ells feminine ella elles Main article: Catalan personal pronouns The morphology of Catalan personal pronouns is complex, specially in unstressed forms, which are numerous (13 distinct forms, compared to 11 in Spanish or 9 in Italian).[98] Features include the gender-neutral ho and the great degree of freedom when combining different unstressed pronouns (65 combinations).[98] Catalan pronouns exhibit T–V distinction, like all other Romance languages (and most European languages, but not Modern English). This feature implies the use of a different set of second person pronouns for formality. This flexibility allows Catalan to use extraposition extensively, much more than French or Spanish. Thus, Catalan can have m'hi recomanaren ("they recommended me to him"), whereas in French one must say ils m'ont recommandé à lui, and Spanish me recomendaron a él.[98] This allows the placement of almost any nominal term as a sentence topic, without having to use so often the passive voice (as in French or English), or identifying the direct object with a preposition (as in Spanish).[98] Verbs[edit] Simple forms of a regular verb of the first conjugation: portar ("to bring")[106] Non-finite Form Infinitive portar Gerund portant Past participle portat (portat, portada, portats, portades) Indicative jo tu ell / ella [vostè] nosaltres vosaltres [vós] ells / elles [vostès] Present porto portes porta portem porteu porten Imperfect portava portaves portava portàvem portàveu portaven Preterite (archaic) portí portares portà portàrem portàreu portaren Future portaré portaràs portarà portarem portareu portaran Conditional portaria portaries portaria portaríem portaríeu portarien Subjunctive jo tu ell / ella [vostè] nosaltres vosaltres [vós] ells / elles [vostès] Present porti portis porti portem porteu portin Imperfect portés portéssis portés portéssim portéssiu portessin Imperative jo tu ell / ella [vostè] nosaltres vosaltres [vós] ells / elles [vostès] — — porta porti portem porteu portin Like all the Romance languages, Catalan verbal inflection is more complex than the nominal. Suffixation is omnipresent, whereas morphological alternations play a secondary role.[98] Vowel alternances are active, as well as infixation and suppletion. However, these are not as productive as in Spanish, and are mostly restricted to irregular verbs.[98] The Catalan verbal system is basically common to all Western Romance, except that most dialects have replaced the synthetic indicative perfect with a periphrastic form of anar ("to go") + infinitive.[98] Catalan verbs are traditionally divided into three conjugations, with vowel themes -a-, -e-, -i-, the last two being split into two subtypes. However, this division is mostly theoretical.[98] Only the first conjugation is nowadays productive (with about 3500 common verbs), whereas the third (the subtype of servir, with about 700 common verbs) is semiproductive. The verbs of the second conjugation are fewer than 100, and it is not possible to create new ones, except by compounding.[98] Syntax[edit] Main article: Catalan syntax The grammar of Catalan follows the general pattern of Western Romance languages. The primary word order is subject–verb–object.[107] However, word order is very flexible. Commonly, verb-subject constructions are used to achieve a semantic effect. The sentence "The train has arrived" could be translated as "Ha arribat el tren" or "El tren ha arribat." Both sentences mean "the train has arrived", but the former puts a focus on the train, while the latter puts a focus on the arrival. This subtle distinction is described as "what you might say while waiting in the station" versus "what you might say on the train."[108] Catalan names[edit] Main article: Catalan names In Spain, every person officially has two surnames, one of which is the father's first surname and the other is the mother's first surname.[109] The law contemplates the possibility of joining both surnames with the Catalan conjunction i ("and").[109][110] Sample text[edit] Selected text[111] from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel Un amor fora ciutat ("A love affair outside the city"). Original Word-for-word translation[111] Free translation Tenia prop de divuit anys quan vaig conèxier I was having close to eighteen years, when I go [past auxiliary] know (=I met) I was about eighteen years old when I met en Raül, a l'estació de Manresa. the Raül, at the station of (=in) Manresa. Raül, at Manresa railway station. El meu pare havia mort, inesperadament i encara jove, The my father had died, unexpectedly and still young, My father had died, unexpectedly and still young, un parell d'anys abans, i d'aquells temps a couple of years before, and of those times a couple of years before; and from that time conservo un record de punyent solitud. I keep a memory of acute loneliness I still harbour memories of great loneliness. Les meves relacions amb la mare The my relations with the mother My relationship with my mother no havien pas millorat, tot el contrari, not had at all improved, all the contrary, had not improved; quite the contrary, potser fins i tot empitjoraven perhaps even they were worsening and arguably it was getting even worse a mesura que em feia gran. at step that (=in proportion as) myself I was making big (=I was growing up). as I grew up. No existia, no existí mai entre nosaltres, Not it was existing, not it existed never between us, There did not exist, at no point had there ever existed between us una comunitat d'interessos, d'afeccions. a community of interests, of affections. shared interests or affection. Cal creure que cercava... una persona It is necessary to believe that I was seeking... a person I guess I was seeking... a person en qui centrar la meva vida afectiva. in whom to center the my life affective. in whom I could center my emotional life. Loanwords in Catalan and English[edit] English word Catalan word Catalan meaning Notes barracks barraca "mud hut" Eng < Fr baraques < Cat/Sp barracas.[112] barracoon barracó or barracot "improvised hut" Eng < Spanish barracón < barraca (Sp < Cat).[112] surge sorgir "to arise" Eng < Middle French sourgir < Old Catalan surgir.[113] paella paella "small cooking pot" Eng < Cat < Old French pael(l)e (mod. poêle ‘skillet’) < Latin patella ‘small pan’ (> Sp padilla).[113] cul-de-sac cul-de-sac "with no exit" French < Old Catalan/Occitan (> English).[113] capicua cap i cua "ends like it starts" cucumber cogombre "fruit used in salads" Eng < Old French / Occitan cocombre.[113] See also[edit] icon Catalan-speaking countries portal flag Spain portal flag Andorra portal flag France portal flag Italy portal icon Language portal Organizations Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Catalan Studies Institute) Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of the Language) Òmnium Cultural Plataforma per la Llengua Varieties Western Catalan Eastern Catalan Central Catalan Balearic Valencian Northern Catalan Alguerese Other Languages of Catalonia Linguistic features of Spanish as spoken by Catalan speakers Languages of France Languages of Italy Languages of Spain Normes de Castelló Pompeu Fabra Scholars Marina Abràmova References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b Ethnologue:Catalan ^ Jump up to: a b Some Iberian scholars may alternatively classify Catalan as Iberian Romance/East Iberian. Jump up ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Standard Catalan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. ^ Jump up to: a b Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh; also /kætəˈlæn/ or /ˈkætələn/[1] ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k Wheeler 2010, p. 191. Jump up ^ Minder, Raphael (2016-11-21). "Italy's Last Bastion of Catalan Language Struggles to Keep It Alive". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-21. ^ Jump up to: a b c Wheeler 2010, p. 190–191. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Costa Carreras & Yates, pp. 6–7. Jump up ^ García Venero 2006. Jump up ^ Burke 1900, p. 154. Jump up ^ Lledó 2011, p. 334–337. ^ Jump up to: a b "Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià". Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian. Jump up ^ Veny 1997, pp. 9–18. ^ Jump up to: a b c Moran 2004, pp. 37–38. Jump up ^ Riquer 1964. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Wheeler 2010, p. 190. Jump up ^ Trobes en llaors de la Verge Maria ("Poems of praise of the Virgin Mary") 1474. Jump up ^ "L'interdiction de la langue catalane en Roussillon par Louis XIV" (PDF). "CRDP, Académie de Montpellier. Jump up ^ Marfany 2002. Jump up ^ "Charte en faveur du Catalan". "La catalanitat a la Catalunya Nord". Jump up ^ Costa Carreras 2007, pp. 10–11. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i Wheeler 2005, p. 1. Jump up ^ Burgen, Stephen (2012-11-22). "Catalan: a language that has survived against the odds". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-01-18. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Wheeler 2003, p. 207. Jump up ^ "Cataluña ordena incumplir las sentencias sobre el castellano en las escuelas" [Catalonia orders violate the judgments on the Castilian in schools] (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 September 2013. Jump up ^ http://www.idescat.cat/economia/inec?tc=3&id=da01&dt=2008&lang=en Jump up ^ "Idescat. Demographics and quality of life. Language uses. First language, language of identification and habitual language. 2003. Results". www.idescat.cat. Retrieved 2017-01-21. Jump up ^ Datos lingüísticos en Cataluña Jump up ^ Koryakov 2001. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 632. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Feldhausen 2010, p. 4. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Schlösser 2005, p. 60f. Jump up ^ Marc Howard Ross, Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict, page 139. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ^ Jump up to: a b Jud 1925. ^ Jump up to: a b Colón 1993, pp. 33–35. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Moll 1958, p. 47. ^ Jump up to: a b Cite error: The named reference e18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Jump up to: a b Portuguese and Spanish have estiagem and estiaje, respectively, for drought, dry season or low water levels. ^ Jump up to: a b Portuguese and Spanish have véspera and víspera, respectively, for eve, or the day before. Jump up ^ Spanish also has trozo, and it is actually a borrowing from Catalan tros. Colón 1993, p 39. Portuguese has troço, but aside from also being a loanword, it has a very different meaning: "thing", "gadget", "tool", "paraphernalia". Jump up ^ Modern Spanish also has gris, but it is a modern borrowing from Occitan. The original word was pardo, which stands for "reddish, yellow-orange, medium-dark and of moderate to weak saturation. It also can mean ochre, pale ochre, dark ohre, brownish, tan, greyish, grey, desaturated, dirty, dark, or opaque." Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2001). Diccionario Akal del color (in Spanish). Akal. ISBN 978-84-460-1083-8. Jump up ^ Colón 1993, p. 55. Jump up ^ Bruguera 2008, p. 3046. Jump up ^ "Sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas. Tables. Official data about the sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas: Catalonia (2003), Andorra (2004), the Balearic Islands (2004), Aragonese Border (2004), Northern Catalonia (2004), Alghero (2004) and Valencian Community (2004)". Generalitat of Catalonia. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2012. Jump up ^ "Catalan, language of Europe" (PDF). Generalitat of Catalonia. Retrieved 13 March 2012. Jump up ^ Población según lengua habitual. Datos comparados 2003-2008. Cataluña. Año 2008, Encuesta de Usos Lingüísticos de la población (2003 y 2008), Instituto de Estadística de Cataluña ^ Jump up to: a b Sources: Catalonia: Statistic data of 2001 census, from Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, Generalitat de Catalunya [2]. Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalitat Valenciana "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2005.. Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalitat Valenciana [3]. Balearic Islands: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Balear d'Estadística, Govern de les Illes Balears [4]. Northern Catalonia: Media Pluriel Survey commissioned by Prefecture of Languedoc-Roussillon Region done in October 1997 and published in January 1998 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 April 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2005.. Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999. Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [5]. Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic [6]. Rest of World: Estimate for 1999 by the Federació d'Entitats Catalanes outside the Catalan Countries. Jump up ^ Red Cruscat del Instituto de Estudios Catalanes Jump up ^ "Tv3 - Telediario: La salud del catalán - YouTube". Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Jump up ^ "www.noticies.cat". Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 630. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k Feldhausen 2010, p. 5. Jump up ^ Wheeler 2005 takes the same approach Jump up ^ Carbonell & Llisterri 1999, p. 62. ^ Jump up to: a b Wheeler 2005, pp. 37,53–54. ^ Jump up to: a b Wheeler 2005, p. 37. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Wheeler 2005, p. 38. ^ Jump up to: a b c Wheeler 2005, p. 54. ^ Jump up to: a b Wheeler 2005, pp. 53–55. Jump up ^ Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–65. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. Jump up ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p. 20. Jump up ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p. 3. Jump up ^ Carbonell & Llisterri 1992, p. 53. Jump up ^ Veny 2007, p. 51. Jump up ^ Wheeler, Max W. (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7. Jump up ^ Lloret 2003, p. 278. Jump up ^ Wheeler, Max W. (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7. Jump up ^ Hualde, José (1992). Catalan. Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-05498-0. Jump up ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p. 1. ^ Jump up to: a b Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 Jump up ^ Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, Jordi; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (1995). "Velarization Degree and Coarticulatory Resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German". Journal of Phonetics. 23 (1): 288. doi:10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80031-X. Jump up ^ Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007). "An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study of Affricates and Fricatives in Two Catalan Dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 37 (2): 145. doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829. Jump up ^ Recasens, Daniel (1993), "Fonètica i Fonologia", Enciclopèdia Catalana. Here Recasens labels these Catalan sounds as "laminoalveolars palatalitzades" Jump up ^ Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (2001). De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel. ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3.. Here the authors label these Catalan sounds as "laminal postalveolar" Jump up ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2007, pp. 145. Jump up ^ Padgett 2003, p. 2. Jump up ^ Wheeler, Max W. (1979), Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-11621-9 Jump up ^ See Bonet, Eulàlia; Mascaró, Joan (1997). "On the Representation of Contrasting Rhotics". In Martínez-Gil, Fernando; Morales-Front, Alfonso. Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-647-0. for more information. Jump up ^ Feldhausen 2010, p. 6. Jump up ^ Wheeler 2005, p. 2. Jump up ^ Costa Carreras 2009, p. 4. ^ Jump up to: a b Enciclopèdia Catalana, pp. 634–635. Jump up ^ Costa Carreras & Yates 2009, p. 5. ^ Jump up to: a b Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.), cited in Ethnologue. Jump up ^ "Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià". Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian. ^ Jump up to: a b Wheeler 2005, pp. 2–3. Jump up ^ Wheeler 2005, pp. 53–54. ^ Jump up to: a b c Wheeler 2005, p. 53. Jump up ^ Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0. Jump up ^ Recasens 1996, pp. 75–76,128–129. Jump up ^ Melchor & Branchadell 2002, p. 71. ^ Jump up to: a b Wheeler 2003, p. 170. Jump up ^ Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua 2005. Jump up ^ Original full text of Dictamen 1: D’acord amb les aportacions més solvents de la romanística acumulades des del segle XIX fins a l’actualitat (estudis de gramàtica històrica, de dialectologia, de sintaxi, de lexicografia…), la llengua pròpia i històrica dels valencians, des del punt de vista de la filologia, és també la que compartixen les comunitats autònomes de Catalunya i de les Illes Balears i el Principat d’Andorra. Així mateix és la llengua històrica i pròpia d’altres territoris de l’antiga Corona d’Aragó (la franja oriental aragonesa, la ciutat sarda de l’Alguer i el departament francés dels Pirineus Orientals). Els diferents parlars de tots estos territoris constituïxen una llengua, és a dir, un mateix «sistema lingüístic», segons la terminologia del primer estructuralisme (annex 1) represa en el Dictamen del Consell Valencià de Cultura, que figura com a preàmbul de la Llei de Creació de l’AVL. Dins d’eixe conjunt de parlars, el valencià té la mateixa jerarquia i dignitat que qualsevol altra modalitat territorial del sistema lingüístic, i presenta unes característiques pròpies que l’AVL preservarà i potenciarà d’acord amb la tradició lexicogràfica i literària pròpia, la realitat lingüística valenciana i la normativització consolidada a partir de les Normes de Castelló. Jump up ^ Casi el 65% de los valencianos opina que su lengua es distinta al catalán, según una encuesta del CIS Jump up ^ List of RACV academics Jump up ^ Isabel I Vilar, Ferran. "Traducció única de la Constitució europea". I-Zefir. 30 Oct 2004. 29 Apr 2009. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 631. ^ Jump up to: a b Wheeler 2005, p. 6. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Wheeler 2005, p. 7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Swan 2001, pp. 97–98. Jump up ^ Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 630–631. Jump up ^ Fabra 1926, pp. 29–30. Jump up ^ Fabra 1926, p. 42. Jump up ^ Archaic in most dialects. Jump up ^ Fabra 1926, pp. 70–71. Jump up ^ The World Atlas of Language Structures. wals.info. Jump up ^ Wheeler, Max; Yates, Alan; Dols, Nicolau (1999). Catalan: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415103428. ^ Jump up to: a b Wheeler 2005, p. 8. Jump up ^ article 19.1 of Law 1/1998 stipulates that "the citizens of Catalonia have the right to use the proper regulation of their Catalan names and surnames and to introduce the conjunction between surnames" ^ Jump up to: a b Swan 2001, p. 112. ^ Jump up to: a b Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. 1991. ISBN 0-00-433286-5. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Philip Babcock Gove, ed. (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, inc. ISBN 3-8290-5292-8. Bibliography[edit] Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (9 February 2005), Dictamen sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià (in Catalan) Bonet, Eulàlia; Mascaró, Joan (1997). "On the Representation of Contrasting Rhotics". In Martínez-Gil, Fernando; Morales-Front, Alfonso. Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-647-0. Britton, A. Scott (2011). Catalan Dictionary & Phrasebook. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0781812580. Bruguera, Jordi (2008). "Historia interna del catalán: léxico, formación de palabras y fraseología". In Ernst, Gerhard. Romanische Sprachgeschichte. 3. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 3045–3055. Burke, Ulrik Ralph (1900). A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic. Longmans, Green, and co. p. 154. Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992). "Catalan". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 22 (1–2): 53. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618. Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0. Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999). "Catalan". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–65. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. 1991. ISBN 0-00-433286-5. Colón, Germà (1993). El lèxic català dins la Romània. Biblioteca Lingüística Catalana. Valencia: Universitat de València. ISBN 84-370-1327-5. Costa Carreras, Joan; Yates, Alan (2009). The Architect of Modern Catalan: Selected Writings/Pompeu Fabra (1868–1948). Instutut d'Estudis Catalans & Universitat Pompeu Fabra & Jonh Benjamins B.V. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978 90 272 3264 9. Fabra, Pompeu (1926). Gramàtica Catalana (in Catalan) (4th ed.). Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Feldhausen, Ingo (2010). Sentential Form and Prosodic Structure of Catalan. John Benjamins B.V. ISBN 978 90 272 5551 8. Ferrater; et al. (1973). "Català". Enciclopèdia Catalana Volum 4 (in Catalan) (1977, corrected ed.). Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana. pp. 628–639. ISBN 84-85-194-04-7. Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2001). Diccionario Akal del color (in Spanish). Akal. ISBN 978-84-460-1083-8. García Venero, Maximiano (2006-07-07). Historia del nacionalismo catalán: 2a edición. Ed. Nacional. Retrieved 2010-04-25. Gove, Philip Babcock, ed. (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, inc. ISBN 3-8290-5292-8. Guinot, Enric (1999). Els fundadors del Regne de València: replobament, antroponímia i llengua a la València medieval. Valencia: Tres i Quatre. ISBN 8475025919. Hualde, José (1992). Catalan. Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-05498-0. Jud, Jakob (1925). Problèmes de géographie linguistique romane (in French). Paris: Revue de Linguistique Romane. pp. 181–182. Koryakov, Yuri (2001). Atlas of Romance languages. Moscow. Lledó, Miquel Àngel (2011). "26. The Independent Standardization of Valencia: From Official Use to Underground Resistance". Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity : The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts (Volume 2). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 336–348. ISBN 978-0-19-539245-6. Lloret, Maria-Rosa (April 2003). "The Phonological Role of Paradigms: The Case of Insular Catalan". Written at Amsterdam & Philadelphia. In Auger, Julie; Clements, J. Clancy; Vance, Barbara. Contemporary Approaches to Romance Linguistics: Selected Papers from the 33rd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages. Language. 83. Bloomington, Indiana: John Benjamins. p. 278. doi:10.1353/lan.2007.0098. Marfany, Marta (2002). Els menorquins d'Algèria (in Catalan). Barcelona: Abadia de Montserrat. ISBN 84-8415-366-5. Melchor, Vicent de; Branchadell, Albert (2002). El catalán: una lengua de Europa para compartir (in Spanish). Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. p. 71. ISBN 84-490-2299-1. Moll, Francesc de B. (2006) [1958]. Gramàtica Històrica Catalana (in Catalan) (Catalan ed.). Universitat de València. p. 47. ISBN 978-84-370-6412-3. Moran, Josep (1994). Treballs de lingüística històrica catalana (in Catalan). Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Monsterrat. pp. 55–93. ISBN 84-7826-568-6. Moran, Josep (2004). Estudis d'història de la llengua catalana (in Catalan). Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat. pp. 37–38. ISBN 84-8415-672-9. Padgett, Jaye (2003). Systemic Contrast and Catalan Rhotics. University of California, Santa Cruzp=2. Recasens, Daniel (1993). "Fonètica i Fonologia". Enciclopèdia Catalana. Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, Jordi; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (1995). "Velarization Degree and Coarticulatory Resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German". Journal of Phonetics. 23 (1): 288. doi:10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80031-X. Recasens, Daniel (1996). Fonètica descriptiva del català: assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i el consonantisme català al segle XX (2nd ed.). Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans. pp. 75–76,128–129. ISBN 9788472833128. Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (2001). De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel. ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3. Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005). "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (1): 1, 20. doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878. Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007). "An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study of Affricates and Fricatives in Two Catalan Dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 37 (2): 145. doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829. Riquer, Martí de (1964). "Vol.1". Història de la Literatura Catalana (in Catalan). Barcelona: Ariel. Schlösser, Rainer (2005). Die romanischen Sprachen. Munich: C.H. Beck. Swan, Michael (2001). Learner English: A Teacher's Guide to Interference and Other Problems, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521779395. Thomas, Earl W. (1962). "The Resurgence of Catalan". Hispania. 45 (1): 43–8. JSTOR 337523. doi:10.2307/337523. Wheeler, Max; Yates, Alan; Dols, Nicolau (1999). Catalan: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge. Wheeler, Max (2003). "5. Catalan". The Romance Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 170–208. ISBN 0-415-16417-6. Wheeler, Max (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7. Wheeler, Max (2006). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Wheeler, Max (2010). "Catalan". Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 188–192. ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7. Veny, Joan (1997). "greuges de Guitard isarn, Senyor de Caboet (1080–1095)". Homenatge a Arthur Terry. Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat. pp. 9–18. ISBN 84-7826-894-4. Veny, Joan (2007). Petit Atles lingüístic del domini català. 1 & 2. Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans. p. 51. ISBN 978-84-7283-942-7. External links[edit] Catalan edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Find more about Catalan language at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. 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Kemerdekaan Berlianto Minggu, 1 Oktober 2017 - 06:50 WIB Abaikan Larangan Madrid, Catalan Bersiap Gelar Referendum Kemerdekaan Foto/Ilustrasi/SINDOnews/Ian A+ A- BARCELONA - Puluhan ribu warga Catalan diperkirakan akan menentang pihak berwenang Spanyol dan berusaha untuk memilih dalam referendum kemerdekaan yang dilarang pada hari Minggu (1/10/2017). Hal ini meningkatkan kekhawatiran akan kerusuhan di wilayah timur laut yang kaya raya. Referendum tersebut, yang dinyatakan ilegal oleh pemerintah pusat Spanyol, telah membuat negara ini memasuki krisis konstitusional terburuk dalam beberapa dasawarsa. Situasi ini menimbulkan kekhawatiran akan kekerasan jalanan sebagai ujian kemauan antara Madrid dan Barcelona. Sebagai pertanda bagaimana pemungutan suara yang direncanakan telah memolarisasi negara tersebut, ribuan demonstran pro-persatuan berkumpul di kota-kota besar Spanyol, termasuk Barcelona, (ian) Follow Us : views: 26.469 2 Pendekar Silat di Surabaya Tewas Usai Bentrok dengan Suporter Bola BERITA TERKAIT spanyol Referendum Kemerdekaan Catalonia Rusuh, Polisi Spanyol Rebut Kotak Suara Ratusan Warga Spanyol Turun ke Jalan Tolak Referendum Catalonia Menlu Spanyol Sebut Referendum Catalan Olok-olok Demokrasi Negara Eropa Keluarkan Travel Advice ke Catalonia Tuntut Referendum, Ratusan Traktor Banjiri Jalan Barcelona Giliran Spanyol Usir Dubes Korut Jaksa Spanyol Interogasi Lebih dari 700 Walikota Catalan Spanyol Pangkas Jumlah Diplomat Korut di Madrid Raja Spanyol Pimpin Demonstrasi Anti Terorisme Teriak 'Saya Tak Takut', 0,5 Juta Orang di Barcelona Demo Lawan Teroris KOMENTAR (pilih salah satu di bawah ini) Disqus Facebook TERPOPULER 1 PBB Tolak Permohonan Kemerdekaan Papua Barat 2 Moskow Tertawakan Klaim Kontribusi Inggris Atas Kekalahan ISIS 3 Seteru dengan Korut Memanas, Kapal Induk Nuklir AS Siap Meluncur 4 Korut Pindahkan Rudalnya dari Pyongyang 5 UEA Bangun 'Kota Mars' Senilai Rp1,8 Triliun di Padang Pasir BERITA TERKINI Australia Khawatir Persekusi Muslim Rohingya Dimanfaatkan ISIS Australia Khawatir Persekusi Muslim Rohingya Dimanfaatkan ISIS Beredar Foto Darah Berceceran di Depan Kakbah, Ini Kata Saudi Italia Usir Dubes Korut sebagai Protes Tes Rudal Referendum Kemerdekaan Catalonia Rusuh, Polisi Spanyol Rebut Kotak Suara 'Syekh Sniper' Irak Terbunuh dalam Perang Lawan ISIS di Hawija Yakin Jadi Kekuatan Nuklir, Media Korut Ledek Sanksi AS Kisah Kepala Bayi Rohingya Terbakar usai Tentara Myanmar Ledakkan Bom Kurdi Irak Pilih Merdeka, Hizbullah Sebut Picu Perang Internal more HOT TOPIC # Korea Utara # Amerika Serikat # PBB # Nuklir Korea Utara # Indonesia logo sindonews international Find Us at : Logo MNC CHANNEL Nasional Metro Daerah Ekbis International Sports Soccer Autotekno Lifestyle Photo Video MNC MEDIA iNews TV RCTI Global TV MNC TV Koran Sindo Sindo Weekly Sindo Trijaya FM MANAGEMENT Tentang Kami Redaksi Karir Kode Etik Disclaimer Term Of Service Privacy Policy Sitemap Kontak Kami Copyright © 2017 SINDOnews.com read/ rendering in 0.0465 seconds (47) connection by :Logo Biznet Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் Taqbaylit Татарча/tatarça Tetun ไทย Türkçe Türkmençe Українська ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche Vèneto Vepsän kel’ Tiếng Việt Volapük Võro Walon Winaray ייִדיש 粵語 Zazaki Žemaitėška 中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 30 September 2017, at 00:16. 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Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie statementMobile viewWikimedia Skip to main content sign in become a supporter subscribe search jobs dating more International edition The Guardian - Back to home home › world › europe US americas asia australia africa middle east cities development home UK world selected sport football opinion culture business lifestyle fashion environment tech travel all Catalonia Catalan referendum: 38 injured amid reports of rubber bullets fired by Spanish police - live Violence breaks out in Barcelona as riot police attack protests, while Catalans cast independence votes in peaceful defiance of Spanish government LIVE Updated 7m ago Spanish riot police in Barcelona on Sunday Spanish riot police in Barcelona on Sunday. Photograph: Emilio Morenatti/AP Contribute with guardian witness Comments 3,627 Patrick Greenfield Sunday 1 October 2017 12.16 BST First published on Sunday 1 October 2017 08.17 BST Show 1h ago 38 people treated by emergency services 2h ago Barcelona mayor calls on Spanish PM to resign 3h ago 'Rubber bullets fired by Spanish police' 4h ago Opening summary 4h ago Polls open Show 12m ago 12:10 Small counter protests have formed in the centre of Madrid in Plaza Mayor and Puerta del Sol. Groups of people are waving Spanish flags, chanting “I am Spanish” and “Spanish united, never divided.” View image on TwitterView image on Twitter Follow Barbara Kollmeyer ✔@bkollmeyer Now the demonstrations in #PlazaMayor and #sol against the #catalunareferendum ...chanting ‘espana’ 5:06 PM - Oct 1, 2017 2 2 Replies 2 2 Retweets 2 2 likes Twitter Ads info and privacy 20m ago 12:03 The Guardia Civil has broken its silence following several videos of brutality against voters. The police force said it is “resisting harassment and provocation” while completing its functions “in defence of the law.” Guardia Civil (@guardiacivil) La Guardia Civil resiste el acoso y las provocaciones ejerciendo con proporcionalidad sus funciones en defensa de la Ley#EstamosporTI pic.twitter.com/7ztW5NupEW October 1, 2017 24m ago 11:58 The Scottish first minister, Nicola Sturgeon, has condemned the violence, and asked the Spanish government to let Catalans vote peacefully. Nicola Sturgeon (@NicolaSturgeon) 1/2 Increasingly concerned by images from #Catalonia. Regardless of views on independence, we should all condemn the scenes being witnessed October 1, 2017 Nicola Sturgeon (@NicolaSturgeon) 2/2 and call on Spain to change course before someone is seriously hurt. Let people vote peacefully. October 1, 2017 Updated at 12.16pm BST 32m ago 11:51 Videos of police brutality against voters are going viral on social media. Spanish journalist Héctor Juanatey has posted footage of police forcibly removing voters outside a polling station at Guinardò market in Barcelona. Héctor Juanatey (@hectorjuanatey) Que no se le olvide a nadie. Iban-a-votar 👇pic.twitter.com/9KkF7BTw6h October 1, 2017 Another video shows police dragging a voter out of a polling station by their hair at Ramon Llull school in the Catalan capital. Héctor Juanatey (@hectorjuanatey) Esto es un colegio. Un CEIP en el que se iba a votar. En serio. pic.twitter.com/7zxH8GZz8o October 1, 2017 Updated at 11.57am BST 32m ago 11:51 Since you’re here … we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. And unlike many news organisations, we haven’t put up a paywall – we want to keep our journalism as open as we can. So you can see why we need to ask for your help. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too. If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps to support it, our future would be much more secure. You can give to the Guardian by becoming a monthly supporter or by making a one-off contribution. - Guardian HQ 42m ago 11:41 Catalan local media are reporting today’s La Liga game between Barcelona and Las Palmas may be suspended after Las Palmas announced they will wear a Spanish flag on their kit to show support for “the unity of Spain”. In a statement, the club said: “Today, what we do is very simple. With the Spanish flag embroidered in our equipment we want to vote unequivocally in an imaginary vote to which nobody has summoned us: we believe in the unity of Spain.” UD Las Palmas (@UDLP_Oficial) COMUNICADO OFICIAL https://t.co/okzQAcyTj7 pic.twitter.com/5nt9GpjnwX October 1, 2017 Updated at 11.59am BST 53m ago 11:30 Barcelona’s footballers have expressed their support for today’s referendum. Former captain Carles Puyol tweeted “voting is democracy” this morning, while Catalan defender Gerard Piqué posted a photo casting a vote. Former Barcelona midfielder Xavi Hernandez said what is happening in Catalonia is “an embarrassment”, and called for the Spanish state to let Catalans vote in peace. Catràdio Esports (@Catradioesports) VÍDEO. Xavi Hernández: “El que està passant a Catalunya és una vergonya” #fcblive #1OCatRadio pic.twitter.com/7M23DfwgkZ October 1, 2017 Gerard Piqué (@3gerardpique) Ja he votat. Junts som imparables defensant la democràcia. pic.twitter.com/mGXf7Qj1TM October 1, 2017 Carles Puyol (@Carles5puyol) Votar es democracia! October 1, 2017 Updated at 11.37am BST 1h ago 11:17 The Catalan president, Carles Puigdemont, has told reporters that “violence will not stop Catalans from voting”. The Catalan government says 38 people have been treated by emergency services in the disorder. Diego Torres (@jdiegotorres) Statement by Catalan President Carles Puigdemont: Violence won't deter Catalans' desire to vote https://t.co/v9ylHZgsGo October 1, 2017 Updated at 11.37am BST 1h ago 11:07 The Scottish first minister, Nicola Sturgeon, has tweeted about the ”shocking” scenes in some parts of Catalonia this morning. Nicola Sturgeon (@NicolaSturgeon) Some of the scenes in #Catalonia this morning are quite shocking and surely unnecessary. Just let people vote. https://t.co/nM1KT8EHVS October 1, 2017 Updated at 11.38am BST 1h ago 11:00 38 people treated by emergency services Catalonia’s government says 38 people have been treated by emergency services due to “repression by Spanish police”. Catalan Government (@catalangov) Catalonia’s emergency services have treated 38 people who have been injured as a result of the repression by Spanish police October 1, 2017 Updated at 11.38am BST 1h ago 10:54 The Spanish interior minister, Juan Ignacio Zoido, has described the response of the Guardia Civil and Spanish police as “proportional and professional”, posting a video of an officer helping a father and child in Sant Julia de Ramis, Girona. Juan Ignacio Zoido (@zoidoJI) Proporcionalidad y profesionalidad. Así actúan la @guardiacivil y la @policia, como este agente dialogando con un padre. #EstamosporTI pic.twitter.com/TX54CDjfJy October 1, 2017 1 of 3 Newest Newer Older Oldest Topics Catalonia Spain Europe Reuse this content more on this story All eyes on Catalonia as referendum day arrives 12hAll eyes on Catalonia as referendum day arrives Share your experiences of the Catalan independence referendum 2hShare your experiences of the Catalan independence referendum In Catalonia’s ‘red belt’ leftwing veterans distrust the separatists 15h 381In Catalonia’s ‘red belt’ leftwing veterans distrust the separatists Catalonia riven with tension as referendum day arrives 15h 1,191Catalonia riven with tension as referendum day arrives Police close voting centres before Catalan referendum 22hPolice close voting centres before Catalan referendum Spanish ambassador to UK calls Catalan referendum a ‘coup d’etat’ 19hSpanish ambassador to UK calls Catalan referendum a ‘coup d’etat’ Catalan government says millions will turn out for referendum 2dCatalan government says millions will turn out for referendum Colm Tóibín: ‘Catalonia is a region in the process of reimagining itself’ 2d 2,268Colm Tóibín: ‘Catalonia is a region in the process of reimagining itself’ comments (3627) Sign in or create your Guardian account to join the discussion. Order by Newest Threads Collapsed 1 2 3 4 … 38 next Due to the large number of comments, they are being shown 100 per page. PedroTar 44s ago 0 1 I am a spaniard, from outside Catalonia. Many of us think that Catalonia should decide its future negotiating first with the rest of the nation, which has not happened. You have to have some point into consideration (Laws in Spain are not the same to UK): 1. Spanish Constitution refuses any Referendum in any part of the country, the Ref. has to be organized for the whole nation. Unless the Constitution is changed, which is possible with a qualified majority in the main Parliament (Las Cortes). 2. The Ref. in Catalonia is illegal as is against the Spanish Constitution. A lot of people in Catalonia don't trust in the Govern (Government in Catalonia) as they has perverted their own Parliament two weeks ago, approving such important laws (as Referendum and Trasitional Future Constitution) without a qualified majority, and avoiding the rest of political parties to debate about them. 3. The Catalan independentist and nationalist parties has been convincing catalan people for independence with a lot of big and naive lies. It remembers me similar to what happened in Brexit vote. You can read a lot about it in spanish and catalan press. They have even re-written their own history. The same old techniques.... I mean neither Spanish or Catalan government have tried to near positions over the years, but in this moment law has to be obeid, it is not another way to do the things...even said by the spanish justice (Supreme and Constitutional Court, Superior Judges, all over Spain and Catalonia). I am not justifiyng any violence, but security corpes are trying to do their work (while catalan police are not). If you don't obey the laws, what cannot be done after that? It's funny, everyone have to think about that, but both parts have done a lot of pain to the people, and we don't know what can happened in the future if they approve Independence for Catalonia with 51% of the votes, and having a half population against it. I wish Catalan people could have their own legal Referendum one day, and decide its future. But this is not a warranted Ref. as it is not legal and made in a very strange way. Please be informed. Reply Report Pele10 48s ago 0 1 Thugs, hooligans, criminals dressed in police uniforms exempt from the law... Reply Report View more comments most viewed The Guardian back to top home UK world selected sport football opinion culture business lifestyle fashion environment tech travel all world › catalonia become a supporter make a contribution securedrop solve technical issue advertise with us work for us contact us complaints & corrections terms & conditions privacy policy cookie policy digital newspaper archive all topics all contributors facebook twitter © 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved.Foundation Powered by MediaWiki Skip to main content sign in become a supporter subscribe search jobs dating more International edition The Guardian - Back to home home › world › europe US americas asia australia africa middle east cities development home UK world selected sport football opinion culture business lifestyle fashion environment tech travel all Spain Police close voting centres before Catalan referendum Thousands of police officers dispatched to evacuate polling stations in attempt to stop independence referendum with ultimatum issued for 6am Sunday Play Video 0:54 Scuffles break out at protest against Catalonia's referendum – video Jamie Grierson and agencies Saturday 30 September 2017 14.22 BST First published on Saturday 30 September 2017 13.34 BST Police have sealed off more than half of the 2,315 schools in Catalonia designated as polling stations for a banned independence referendum as tensions rise ahead of the controversial ballot. Tens of thousands of Catalans are expected to vote in the ballot, which will have no legal status as it has been blocked by Spain’s constitutional court. Madrid has sent thousands of police to the north-eastern region to stop it taking place. A Spanish government source said 163 schools designated as voting centres had been occupied by families as images of families including children in sleeping bags have emerged. Colm Tóibín: ‘Catalonia is a region in the process of reimagining itself’ Read more People supporting the referendum have camped out overnight in schools in an effort to prevent an order by the head of the Catalan regional police to evacuate and close polling stations by 6am on Sunday. Voting is due to begin at 9am. Catalan police have been instructed to empty the buildings by Sunday morning, but not to use violence to remove the people occupying schools. The police in the region issued an ultimatum to the separatists, parents and children who are occupying schools to leave by 6am on Sunday – a deadline designed to prevent the vote from taking place, since the polls are supposed to open three hours later. Spain’s foreign minister, Alfonso Dastis, said on Saturday the Catalan government’s plan was anti-democratic and runs “counter to the goals and ideals the European Union” is trying to advance. “What they are pushing is not democracy. It is a mockery of democracy, a travesty of democracy,” he added. Play Video 2:25 The Catalan fight for independence explained – video Emotions are running high as the vote nears. The conservative government of the prime minister, Mariano Rajoy, says any vote on Catalan secession would have to be held across all of Spain, not just in Catalonia. The European Union said Catalonia would be forced out of the bloc and would have to reapply to join if it left Spain. The success or failure of the referendum is dependent on the response of the 17,000 regional officers and whether they can clear all the polling centres. Quim Roy, a father of two, said officers told the few dozen parents and children at the Congrés-Indians primary school in Barcelona on Saturday not to display any propaganda supporting the vote and that they must leave by 6am Sunday. “We decided in a meeting that we would send the kids home. Calling them human shields is a huge lie, but I made my decision because there is fear. Who knows what will happen if the Guardia Civil comes,” Roy said. “The only thing that is clear to me is that I won’t use violence,” he added. “If they tell me I can’t be in a public school to exercise my democratic rights, they will have to take me out of here. I won’t resist, but they will have to carry me out.” Catalan government says millions will turn out for referendum Read more The Catalonia president, Carles Puigdemont, said the referendum would go ahead regardless. “Everything is prepared at the more than 2,000 voting points so they have ballot boxes and voting slips, and have everything people need to express their opinion,” he said. On Saturday a Catalan government spokesman said at least four police officers had entered the centre in Barcelona that controls the regional government’s telecommunications and IT and were expected to stay there for two days. This followed an order by Catalonia’s high court on Friday for police to prevent electronic voting taking place. The court also instructed Google to delete an application it said was being used to spread information on the vote. Police and Spain’s interior ministry did not confirm the move. At a closing rally for the independence campaign in Barcelona on Friday, people formed the slogan “Referendum is democracy” in large white letters in front of a cheering crowd, with many draped in the red and yellow Catalan flag. Since you’re here … … we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. And unlike many news organisations, we haven’t put up a paywall – we want to keep our journalism as open as we can. So you can see why we need to ask for your help. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too. I appreciate there not being a paywall: it is more democratic for the media to be available for all and not a commodity to be purchased by a few. I’m happy to make a contribution so others with less means still have access to information. Thomasine F-R. If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps to support it, our future would be much more secure. Become a supporter Make a contribution Topics Spain Catalonia Europe European Union Mariano Rajoy news Reuse this content Most popular Catalan referendum: 38 injured amid reports of rubber bullets fired by Spanish police - live Formula One: Verstappen wins Malaysian Grand Prix ahead of Hamilton – as it happened Engine breaks up on Air France Airbus A380, forcing emergency landing in Canada Melbourne Storm beat North Queensland Cowboys in 2017 NRL grand final – live! Marilyn Manson struck by falling stage scenery during New York concert more on this story Live Catalan referendum: 38 injured amid reports of rubber bullets fired by Spanish police - live 42m 3,569Catalan referendum: 38 injured amid reports of rubber bullets fired by Spanish police - live All eyes on Catalonia as referendum day arrives 12hAll eyes on Catalonia as referendum day arrives Share your experiences of the Catalan independence referendum 2hShare your experiences of the Catalan independence referendum In Catalonia’s ‘red belt’ leftwing veterans distrust the separatists 15h 381In Catalonia’s ‘red belt’ leftwing veterans distrust the separatists Catalonia riven with tension as referendum day arrives 15h 1,191Catalonia riven with tension as referendum day arrives Spanish ambassador to UK calls Catalan referendum a ‘coup d’etat’ 19hSpanish ambassador to UK calls Catalan referendum a ‘coup d’etat’ Catalan government says millions will turn out for referendum 2dCatalan government says millions will turn out for referendum Colm Tóibín: ‘Catalonia is a region in the process of reimagining itself’ 2d 2,268Colm Tóibín: ‘Catalonia is a region in the process of reimagining itself’ most viewed The Guardian back to top home UK world selected sport football opinion culture business lifestyle fashion environment tech travel all world › spain become a supporter make a contribution securedrop solve technical issue advertise with us work for us contact us complaints & corrections terms & conditions privacy policy cookie policy digital newspaper archive all topics all contributors facebook twitter © 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. BBC Accessibility links Skip to contentAccessibility Help Sign in BBC navigation News Sport Weather Shop Earth Travel More Search the BBC Search Search the BBC News navigation Home Video World selected Asia UK Business Tech Science Magazine Entertainment & Arts Health World News TV More sections World selected Africa Australia Europe selected Latin America Middle East US & Canada Catalan referendum: Clashes as voters defy Madrid 42 minutes ago From the section Europe Media captionPolice storm Catalan referendum polling station Catalonia's independence referendum has begun in chaotic fashion, with clashes occurring as police attempt to prevent the vote from taking place. The Spanish government has pledged to stop a poll that was declared illegal by the country's constitutional court. Police officers are preventing people from voting, and seizing ballot papers and boxes at polling stations. In the regional capital Barcelona, witnesses said police had fired rubber bullets during pro-referendum protests. Thirty-eight people have been injured, most of them lightly, say Catalan emergency services. Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont condemned the action of federal police. "The unjustified use of violence... by the Spanish state will not stop the will of the Catalan people," he told reporters. Why these are uncharted waters for Spain Spain's move to halt Catalan vote How is the day unfolding? The ballot papers contain just one question: "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?" There are two boxes: Yes or No. Ahead of the polls opening, the Catalan government said voters could print off their own ballot papers and use any polling station if their designated voting place was shut. In the town of Girona, riot police smashed their way into a polling station where Mr Puigdemont was due to vote. Television footage showed them breaking the glass of the sports centre's entrance door and forcibly removing those attempting to vote. However, Mr Puigdemont was still able to cast his ballot at another polling station. Spanish civil guards outside a polling station in Sarria de TerImage copyrightAFP Image caption Riot police moved in on polling stations as the time came for them to open Since Friday, thousands of separatist supporters had occupied schools and other buildings designated as polling stations in order to keep them open. Many of those inside were parents and their children, who remained in the buildings after the end of lessons on Friday and bedded down in sleeping bags on gym mats. In some areas, farmers positioned tractors on roads and in front of polling station doors, and school gates were taken away to make it harder for the authorities to seal buildings off. Referendum organisers had called for peaceful resistance to any police action. Grey line 'Mood of celebration' Tom Burridge, BBC News, Barcelona Two women cast their ballot in the referendum vote at Escola Industrial of Barcelona school polling station on October 1, 2017 in Barcelona, SpainImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES It began in the dark and the rain. Daniel, who arrived at his local school at 01:00 and slept in the street outside, said his grandfather would have been proud of him. He and hundreds of others blocked the entrance for several hours before this polling station opened. Suddenly there was silence. Two officers from Catalonia's regional police force had arrived. But a human wall was formed, and the police left. National Spanish riot police arrived at another polling station nearby in Barcelona but again, people there kept them back. One witness said there were scuffles and showed me a photo of a middle-aged woman with a bloody face. But inside the school sports hall, there is a mood of celebration as people take selfies as they cast their votes. Catalonia's former President, Artur Más - the man in charge when Catalan nationalists really started pushing for a referendum - told me that people were voting peacefully in the face of "a violent Spanish state". Grey line How did Madrid prepare for the vote? Thousands of extra police officers have been sent to the region, many of them based on two ships in the port of Barcelona. The Spanish government has put policing in Catalonia under central control and ordered the regional force, the Mossos d'Esquadra, to help enforce the ban on the illegal referendum. In a show of force ahead of the poll, Spanish authorities seized voting materials, imposed fines on top Catalan officials and temporarily detained dozens of politicians. Police have also occupied the regional government's telecommunications centre. Why these are uncharted waters for Spain Spain's move to halt Catalan vote Why is a vote being held? Catalonia, a wealthy region of 7.5 million people in north-eastern Spain, has its own language and culture. It also has a high degree of autonomy, but is not recognised as a separate nation under the Spanish constitution. Media captionWhy some Catalans want independence - and others don't Pressure for a vote on self-determination has grown over the past five years. But Spanish unionists argue Catalonia already enjoys broad autonomy within Spain, along with other regions like the Basque Country and Galicia. Does Catalonia want to leave Spain? Spain's distinctive north-eastern region Why is Madrid so opposed? Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy says the vote goes against the constitution, which refers to "the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation, the common and indivisible homeland of all Spaniards". Central government spokesman Iñigo Mendez de Vigo accused the Catalan government of being inflexible and one-sided, but it is a charge that Catalan nationalists throw back at Madrid itself. Catalonia in numbers 16% of Spain's population live in Catalonia 25.6% of Spain's exports come from Catalonia 19% of Spain's GDP is produced in Catalonia 20.7% of foreign investment in Spain goes to Catalonia 35.3% of Catalonia's GDP is debt Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, Eurostat, Bank of Spain Getty Demonstrations by independence campaigners have been largely peaceful. On the eve of the vote, thousands of demonstrators calling for Spanish unity held rallies in cities across Spain, including in Barcelona. They waved Spanish flags and carried banners reading "Catalonia is Spain". BBC map Related Topics Spain More on this story Catalonia referendum: Thousands turn out for closing rally 30 September 2017 Catalonia referendum: Spain PM calls for 'escalation' to stop 21 September 2017 Video Catalonia referendum: Protests over raids to halt vote 20 September 2017 How Spain aims to halt referendum 15 September 2017 Europe Karl Kreile (L) kisses Bodo Mende during the first civil wedding ceremony between two men in Berlin, Germany (01 October 2017) Germans celebrate first gay marriage 1 October 2017 From the section Europe Full article Germans celebrate first gay marriage File pic of Swiss woman in a niqab Austrian ban on veil comes into force 1 October 2017 From the section Europe Full article Austrian ban on veil comes into force Police officers stop NMR demonstrators from trying to walk along a forbidden street during the Nordic Resistance Movement (NMR) march in central Gothenburg, Sweden September 30, 2017. Clashes at Swedish neo-Nazi rally 30 September 2017 From the section Europe Full article Clashes at Swedish neo-Nazi rally Top Stories Clashes as Catalan voters defy Madrid Violence flares in the Spanish region as police try to halt a banned independence referendum. 42 minutes ago The case for and against independence 30 September 2017 OJ Simpson released from jail on parole 2 hours ago Features It's the start of the bikejoring season, so we met the people who use their dogs to race bikes. VIDEO The people who race bikes with dogs Woman climbing a broken ladder VIDEO A glass ceiling - or a broken ladder? A man in a striped top looks at a striped artwork. Your pictures: Camouflage Rocky Mountains Highway to Heaven Exterior picture of Canfranc Is Europe's ghostliest train station about to rise again? breast cancer examination VIDEO Show and tell for breast cancer patients Pakistan's permanent UN representative Maleeha Lodhi holds up a photo of an injured girl at the General Assembly. The photo is of a girl in Gaza, but Lodhi claims it is from Kashmir. Reality Check: The fake photo and the fallout photo editing software open on laptop shows chubby original photo on left and touched-up, more tanned, skinny photo on right French ads to warn when thinness is faked Pro-independence Catalan demonstrator, 21 September Catalonia referendum defies Spanish obstruction Most Read 1 Marilyn Manson crushed by prop on stage in New York 2 Catalan referendum: Clashes as voters defy Madrid 3 Air France plane engine fails over Atlantic 4 Edmonton: Five injured in Canada 'terror' incidents 5 Is Europe's ghostliest train station about to rise again? 6 OJ Simpson released on parole from Nevada jail 7 'We're scared of our adopted son' 8 Who's that girl? GCSE student wows at conference 9 Theresa May pledges help for young on student fees and housing 10 Austrian ban on full-face veil in public places comes into force BBC News Services On your mobile On your connected tv Get news alerts Contact BBC News Explore the BBC Home News Sport Weather Shop Earth Travel Capital Culture Autos Future TV Radio CBBC CBeebies Food iWonder Bitesize Music Arts Make It Digital Taster Nature Local Terms of Use About the BBC Privacy Policy Cookies Accessibility Help Parental Guidance Contact the BBC Get Personalised Newsletters Advertise with us Ad choices Copyright © 2017 BBC. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read about our approach to external linking. BBC Accessibility links Skip to contentAccessibility Help Sign in BBC navigation News Sport Weather Shop Earth Travel More Search the BBC Search Search the BBC News navigation Home Video World selected Asia UK Business Tech Science Magazine Entertainment & Arts Health World News TV More sections World selected Africa Australia Europe selected Latin America Middle East US & Canada Catalan referendum: Activists occupy schools ahead of vote 30 September 2017 From the section Europe Pro-independence activistsImage copyrightREUTERS Image caption Pro-independence activists have occupied designated polling stations More than 160 schools in Catalonia have been occupied by activists trying to keep them open ahead of the region's banned independence referendum, Spain's central government says. Police visited 1,300 of the 2,315 schools in Catalonia designated as polling stations, finding 163 occupied. Tens of thousands of people are expected to attempt to vote on Sunday. Demonstrators also rallied in Barcelona on Saturday evening against the poll, calling instead for unity with Spain. Waving Spanish flags and carrying banners reading "Catalonia is Spain", thousands marched on the town hall. Meanwhile, Spanish authorities are stepping up their attempts to stop the ballot taking place. Authorities in Madrid have sent thousands of police to the region to stop the referendum - declared illegal by Spain's constitutional court. The Madrid government has ordered the Catalan regional police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra, to assist them. Many of the extra officers drafted in are stationed in two ships in the port of Barcelona. Police have also occupied the regional government's telecommunications centre. Media captionTom Burridge reports from one of the designated polling stations for the banned independence referendum Police have also been ordered to clear schools occupied by activists aiming to ensure the buildings can be used for voting. Spanish government sources quoted by Reuters said police would decide for themselves how to enforce orders to stop people voting. The head of the Catalan police has urged officers to avoid using force. Many of those inside the schools are parents and their children, who remained in the buildings after the end of lessons on Friday. Some told Reuters news agency that police had told them they could stay as long as they were not doing anything connected to Sunday's vote. Why these are uncharted waters for Spain Spain's moved to halt Catalan vote Laia, a 41-year-old sociologist who is staying in a Barcelona school this evening, said the police had visited four times. "They read us out the part of the court order that says no activities related to the preparation of the banned referendum are allowed," she told Reuters. What is the basis for the vote? Media captionWhy some Catalans want independence - and others don't Catalonia, a wealthy region of 7.5 million people in north-eastern Spain, has its own language and culture. It also has a high degree of autonomy, but is not recognised as a separate nation under the Spanish constitution. Pressure for a vote on self-determination has grown over the past five years as austerity has hit the Spanish economy and people hard. Hundreds attended a demonstration in favour of Spanish unity in BarcelonaImage copyrightAFP/GETTY Image caption Thousands attended a demonstration in favour of Spanish unity in Barcelona on Saturday But Spanish unionists argue Catalonia already enjoys broad autonomy within Spain, along with other regions like the Basque Country and Galicia. Does Catalonia want to leave Spain? Spain's distinctive north-eastern region Will the vote go ahead? Officers have been visiting the locations due to be used as polling stations, as well as seizing items such as ballot papers, while prosecutors have ordered the closure of websites linked to the vote and the arrest of officials organising the referendum. But Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont told Reuters that the referendum would go ahead. "Everything is prepared at the more than 2,000 voting points so they have ballot boxes and voting slips, and have everything people need to express their opinion," he said. Why is Madrid so opposed? Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy stared down Catalan secessionists when they held a trial referendum in 2014, offering no concessions to their demand for a legal vote. He has pledged to stop the 2017 vote, saying it goes against the constitution which refers to "the indissoluble unity of the Spanish Nation, the common and indivisible homeland of all Spaniards". Catalonia in numbers 16% of Spain's population live in Catalonia, and it produces: 25.6% of Spain's exports 19% of Spain's GDP 20.7% of foreign investment Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, Eurostat, Bank of Spain Getty Central government spokesman Iñigo Mendez de Vigo accused the Catalan government of being inflexible and one-sided but it is a charge Catalan nationalists throw back at Madrid itself. Despite the tension in the region, demonstrations by independence campaigners have been largely peaceful. "I don't believe there will be anyone who will use violence or who will want to provoke violence that will tarnish the irreproachable image of the Catalan independence movement as pacifist," Mr Puigdemont said. BBC map Related Topics Spain More on this story Catalonia referendum: Thousands turn out for closing rally 30 September 2017 Catalonia referendum: Spain PM calls for 'escalation' to stop 21 September 2017 Video Catalonia referendum: Protests over raids to halt vote 20 September 2017 How Spain aims to halt referendum 15 September 2017 Europe Catalan people who gathered outside the Ramon Llull school clash with Spanish National riot policemen in Barcelona Clashes as Catalan voters defy Madrid 1 October 2017 From the section Europe Full article Clashes as Catalan voters defy Madrid Police officers stop NMR demonstrators from trying to walk along a forbidden street during the Nordic Resistance Movement (NMR) march in central Gothenburg, Sweden September 30, 2017. Clashes at Swedish neo-Nazi rally 30 September 2017 From the section Europe Full article Clashes at Swedish neo-Nazi rally Police and stadium staff help the injured supporters SPORT Barrier collapse hurts French football fans 30 September 2017 From the section European Football Full article Barrier collapse hurts French football fans Top Stories Clashes as Catalan voters defy Madrid Violence flares in the Spanish region as police try to halt a banned independence referendum. 42 minutes ago Police storm Catalan polling station 2 hours ago OJ Simpson released from jail on parole 2 hours ago Features It's the start of the bikejoring season, so we met the people who use their dogs to race bikes. VIDEO The people who race bikes with dogs Woman climbing a broken ladder VIDEO A glass ceiling - or a broken ladder? A man in a striped top looks at a striped artwork. Your pictures: Camouflage Rocky Mountains Highway to Heaven Exterior picture of Canfranc Is Europe's ghostliest train station about to rise again? breast cancer examination VIDEO Show and tell for breast cancer patients Pakistan's permanent UN representative Maleeha Lodhi holds up a photo of an injured girl at the General Assembly. The photo is of a girl in Gaza, but Lodhi claims it is from Kashmir. Reality Check: The fake photo and the fallout photo editing software open on laptop shows chubby original photo on left and touched-up, more tanned, skinny photo on right French ads to warn when thinness is faked Pro-independence Catalan demonstrator, 21 September Catalonia referendum defies Spanish obstruction Most Read 1 Marilyn Manson crushed by prop on stage in New York 2 Catalan referendum: Clashes as voters defy Madrid 3 Air France plane engine fails over Atlantic 4 Edmonton: Five injured in Canada 'terror' incidents 5 Is Europe's ghostliest train station about to rise again? 6 OJ Simpson released on parole from Nevada jail 7 'We're scared of our adopted son' 8 Who's that girl? GCSE student wows at conference 9 Theresa May pledges help for young on student fees and housing 10 Austrian ban on full-face veil in public places comes into force BBC News Services On your mobile On your connected tv Get news alerts Contact BBC News Explore the BBC Home News Sport Weather Shop Earth Travel Capital Culture Autos Future TV Radio CBBC CBeebies Food iWonder Bitesize Music Arts Make It Digital Taster Nature Local Terms of Use About the BBC Privacy Policy Cookies Accessibility Help Parental Guidance Contact the BBC Get Personalised Newsletters Advertise with us Ad choices Copyright © 2017 BBC. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read about our approach to external linking. Catalunya Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas Catalunya Catalunya (Katalan) Catalonha (Ositan) Cataluña (Spanyol) Komunitas otonomi Flag of Catalonia Bendera Coat-of-arms of Catalonia Lambang Lagu: Els Segadors (Katala) "The Reapers" MENU0:00 Lokasi Catalunya Lokasi Catalunya Koordinat: 41°49′LU 1°28′BT Negara Spanyol Ibukota Barcelona 41°23′LU 2°11′BT Provinsi Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, dan Tarragona Pemerintahan • Jenis Diserahkan pemerintah dalam sebuah monarki konstitusional • Lembaga Generalitat de Catalunya • Presiden Carles Puigdemont (CDC) Luas • Total 32.114 km2 (12,399 sq mi) Peringkat luas Ke-6 (6.3% di Spanyol) Populasi (2011) • Total 7.535.251 • Kepadatan 230/km2 (610/sq mi) • Pop. rank Ke-2 (16% di Spanyol) Demonim Catalan català (m), catalana (f) catalán (m), catalana (f) GDP (nominal; 2012)[1] • Total $255.204 miliar • Per kapita $33,580 GDP (PPP; 2012)[1] • Total $336.162 miliar • Per kapita $43,837 Zona waktu CET (UTC+1) • Musim panas (DST) CEST (UTC+2) ISO 3166-2 CT Kode area +34 97- +34 93 (Barcelona) Bahasa resmi Katalan, Bahasa Spanyol dan Aran (Oksitan) Statuta Otonomi 9 September 1932 18 September 1979 9 August 2006 Patron saint Saint George (Sant Jordi), Mare de Déu de Montserrat Parlemen 135 deputi Kongres 47 deputi (dari 350) Senat 16 senator (dari 264) Situs web Generalitat de Catalunya Catalunya (English /kætəˈloʊniə/, /kætəˈloʊnjə/; bahasa Katalan: Catalunya [kətəˈɫuɲə] atau [kataˈluɲa]; bahasa Spanyol: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa]; bahasa Occitan: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; bahasa Perancis: Catalogne) adalah sebuah wilayah otonomi Spanyol yang memiliki luas wilayah 32.114 km² dan populasi 6.995.206 jiwa (2005). Ibu kotanya ialah Barcelona. Pada abad kesembilan, Catalunya paling terdampak akibat Perang Napoleon dan Carlist. pada paruh kedua abad Catalunya mengalami industrialisasi. Karena kekayaan dari ekspansi industri tumbuh, Catalunya melihat kebangkitan budaya digabung dengan nasionalisme di saat bermunculan berbagai gerakan pekerja. Di tahun 1914, empat provinsi Katalan membentuk Persemakmuran, dan dengan kembalinya demokrasi melalui Republik Spanyol Kedua (1931–1939), Generalitat de Catalunya dipulihkan sebagai pemerintah otonom. Setelah Perang Sipil Spanyol, kediktatoran Francoist memberlakukan tindakan represif, menghapuskan lembaga Katalan dan melarang penggunaan bahasa Katalan secara resmi. Dari akhir tahun 1950-an sampai awal 1970-an, Catalonia melihat pertumbuhan ekonomi yang pesat, menarik banyak pekerja dari seluruh Spanyol, membuat Barcelona menjadi salah satu daerah metropolitan industri terbesar di Eropa dan mengubah Catalunya menjadi tujuan wisata utama. Karena transisi Spanyol menuju demokrasi (1975-1982), Catalunya telah memperoleh kembali beberapa otonomi politik dan budaya dan sekarang menjadi salah satu komunitas yang paling dinamis di Spanyol. Daftar isi [sembunyikan] 1 Etimologi dan pengucapan 2 Budaya 2.1 Seni dan arsitektur 2.1.1 Monumen dan Situs Warisan Dunia 2.2 Musik dan Tarian 2.3 Media dan sinema 2.4 Olahraga 3 Galeri Foto 4 Kota kembar 5 Lihat pula 6 Referensi 7 Pranala luar Etimologi dan pengucapan[sunting | sunting sumber] Nama Catalunya (Catalonia)—dieja Cathalonia, atau Cathalaunia, di Abad Pertengahan Latin—mulai digunakan sebagai tanah air bagi Orang Katalan (Cathalanenses) di akhir abad ke-11 dan mungkin digunakan sebelumnya sebagai referensi teritorial untuk kelompok negara yang terdiri atas sebagian dari Septimania dan Marca Hispanica di bawah kendali Count of Barcelona dan kerabatnya.[2] Asal mula nama Catalunya tunduk pada interpretasi yang beragam karena kurangnya bukti. Sebuah teori menyarankan bahwa Catalunya berasal dari nama Gothia (atau Gauthia) Launia ("Tanah Goths"), sejak asal usul Katalan ditemukan di Septimania, dikenal sebagai Gothia, sehingga Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Cathalaunia > Catalonia secara teoritis berasal dari sana.[3][4] Selama Abad Pertengahan, perunut sejarah Bizantium mengkaim bahwa Catalania berasal dari medley lokal Goths dengan Alans, membentuk Goth-Alania.[5] Teori lainnya menyebutkan bahwa: Catalunya berasal dari istilah "tanah kastil", berevolusi dari istilah castlà atau castlan, istilah pertengahan untuk penguasa kastil.[3][6] Teori ini karenanya menyarankan bahwa Catalunya dan Castile memiliki akar yang sama. Sumbernya berasal dari Celtic, yang berarti "kepala pertempuran". Meskipun wilayah ini tidak diketahui pernah diduduki oleh Celtic, budaya Celtic hadir dalam interior Iberia pada zaman pra-Romawi.[7] Lacetani, suatu suku Iberia yang tinggal di daerah tersebut dan namanya, karena pengaruh Romawi, dapat berevolusi mellaui metatesis menjadi Katelans dan kemudian menjadi Catalans.[8][9] Dalam Bahasa Inggris, Catalonia diucapkan /kætəˈloʊniə/. Nama aslinya, Catalunya, diucapkan [kətəˈluɲə], jenis yang paling banyak digunakan yang memiliki pelafalan dianggap standar.[10] Nama Spanyolnya adalah Cataluña ([kataˈluɲa]), dan nama Arannya adalah Catalonha ([kataˈluɲɔ]). Budaya[sunting | sunting sumber] Seni dan arsitektur[sunting | sunting sumber] Antoni Gaudí. Catalunya telah memberi dunia banyak tokoh penting dalam bidang seni. Pelukis internasional dari Katalan adalah Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró dan Antoni Tàpies. Terkait erat dengan suasana piktorial Katalan, Pablo Picasso tinggal di Barcelona selama masa mudanya, melatih mereka sebagai seorang seniman dan menciptakan gerakan kubisme. Seniman penting lainnya adalah Ramon Casas, Josep Maria Subirachs dan Marià Fortuny. Museum lukis penting di Catalunya adalah Teatre-Museu Dalí, Picasso Museum, Fundació Antoni Tàpies, Joan Miró Foundation, National Art Museum of Catalonia (MNAC), Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art (MACBA), Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona (CCCB) dan CaixaForum. Di bidang arsitektur telah dikembangkan dan disesuaikan dengan gaya artistik Catalunya yang berbeda yang lazim di Eropa, meninggalkan jejak dalam banyak gereja, biara-biara dan katedral, bernuansa Romanesque[11] dan Gaya Gotik. Terdapat beberapa contoh arsitektur Abad Pertengahan, Barok dan Neoklasik. Modernisme (Art Nouveau) pada akhir abad kesembilan belas muncul sebagai seni nasional. Arsitek Katalan terkenal di dunia dari gaya ini adalah Antoni Gaudí, Lluís Domènech i Montaner dan Josep Puig i Cadafalch. Dalam bidang arsitektur rasionalisme, beberapa arsitek di bidang ini diantaranya Josep Lluís Sert dan Torres Clavé. Monumen dan Situs Warisan Dunia[sunting | sunting sumber] Sagrada Família, Barcelona. Di daerah ini terdapat berbagai Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO diantaranya: Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco, Tarragona Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí, Provinsi Lleida Poblet Monastery, Poblet, Provinsi Tarragona Karya Lluís Domènech i Montaner: Palau de la Música Catalana, Barcelona Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona Karya Antoni Gaudí: Sagrada Família, Barcelona Parc Güell, Barcelona Palau Güell, Barcelona Casa Milà (La Pedrera), Barcelona Casa Vicens, Barcelona Casa Batlló, Barcelona Gereja Colònia Güell, Santa Coloma de Cervelló Musik dan Tarian[sunting | sunting sumber] Sardana. Sardana dianggap sebagai tarian populer Katalan yang paling khas, grup lainnya juga berlatih Ball de bastons, moixiganga, galops atau jota di bagian selatan. Havaneres merupakan ciri khas di beberapa daerah laut dari Costa Brava, terutama selama bulan-bulan musim panas ketika lagu-lagu ini dinyanyikan di luar ruangan disertai dengan Cremat rum yang dibakar. Gaya musik lainnya yang lahir pada abad ke-20 adalah Catalan rumba, Rock Katalan dan Nova Cançó. Media dan sinema[sunting | sunting sumber] Logo Televisió de Catalunya. Catalunya adalah komunitas otonom, bersama dengan Madrid, dengan lebih banyak media, dalam Bahasa Katalan dan Spanyol. Televisió de Catalunya, yang bersiaran seluruhnya dalam Bahasa Katalan, merupakan TV publik utama di Katalan. Televisi tersebut memiliki 5 saluran: TV3, Canal 33, 324, Esport3 dan Canal Super3. TV3 bersaing dalam audiensi dengan televisi Negara yang disiarkan di Catalunya dalam bahasa Spanyol: Televisión Española (dengan beberapa siaran dalam Bahasa Katalan), Tele 5, Antena 3, Cuatro dan La Sexta. Saluran lainnya dengan pemirsa televisi yang lebih kecil adalah 8TV, penyiaran televisi dari Grup Godó, Canal Català TV, Barça TV dan televisi lokal. Dua surat kabar utama di daerah ini adalah El Periódico de Catalunya dan La Vanguardia, keduanya dengan edisi berbahasa Katalan dan Spanyol. Ada juga beberapa surat kabar penting yang diterbitkan hanya dalam Bahasa Katalan, Ara dan El Punt Avui, serta beberapa pers lokal. Surat kabar berbahasa Spanyol, seperti El País dan El Mundo, juga dapat diperoleh di sana. Radio seperti radio penyiaran publik Catalunya Ràdio dan radio swasta RAC 1 (dimiliki oleh Grup Godó) adalah dua radio utama di Catalunya, keduanya dalam Bahasa Katalan. Olahraga[sunting | sunting sumber] Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys, di Montjuïc, Barcelona. Olahraga memiliki kejadian penting dalam kehidupan dan budaya Katalan sejak awal abad ke-20 dan, sebagai hasilnya, daerah ini memiliki infrastruktur olahraga yang dikembangkan dengan baik. Olahraga utama di daerah ini adalah sepakbola, basket, bola tangan, hoki, tenis dan motorsport. Terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa olahraga paling populer diwakili ke luar oleh tim nasional Spanyol, Catalunya secara resmi dapat bermain sebagai dirinya sendiri dalam beberapa lainnya.[12] Klub sepakbola terbesar adalah FC Barcelona, yang telah memenangi 5 Liga Champions UEFA, 4 UEFA Cup, dan RCD Espanyol, serta telah dua kali menjadi runner-up pada UEFA Cup, keduanya bermain di La Liga. Catalunya menjadi tuan rumah bagi banyak acara olahraga internasional, seperti Olimpiade Musim Panas 1992 di Barcelona, dan juga Mediterranean Games 1955 atau World Aquatics Championships 2013. Galeri Foto[sunting | sunting sumber] Galeri Catalunya Citra Satelit dari Catalunya Val de Ruda, Val d'Aran Tossa de Mar Tortosa Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona Park Güell, Barcelona Katedral Saint Eulàlia, Barcelona Kota kembar[sunting | sunting sumber] Bendera Meksiko Bendera Nuevo León Nuevo León, Meksiko[13][14][15] Bendera Amerika Serikat Bendera California California, Amerika Serikat[16] Bendera Kanada Bendera Quebec Quebec, Kanada Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber] Ikon portal Portal Spanyol Simbol Catalunya F.C. Barcelona Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber] ^ a b National Statistics Office (Spain's GDP and GRP), National Statistics Office. GDP Figures of Spanish autonomous communities and provinces 2008–2012. ^ Enciclopèdia Catalana online: Catalunya ("Geral de Cataluign, Raimundi Catalan and Arnal Catalan appear in 1107/1112") (dalam Bahasa Katalan) Archived 6 February 2012 di Wayback Machine. ^ a b Maximiano García Venero (7 Juli 2006). Historia del nacionalismo catalán: 2a edición. Ed. Nacional. Diakses tanggal 25 April 2010. ^ Ulick Ralph Burke (1900). A history of Spain from the earliest times to the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. Longmans, Green, and co. p. 154. ^ The Sarmatians: 600 BC-AD 450 (Men-at-Arms) oleh Richard Brzezinski dan Gerry Embleton, 19 Agustus 2002. ^ "La formació de Catalunya". Gencat.cat. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 15 Desember 2009. Diakses tanggal 25 April 2010. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Diakses tanggal 31 Januari 2014. ^ El Misteri de la Paraula Cathalunya.[pranala nonaktif] ^ "La Catalogne: son nom et ses limites historiques, Histoire de Roussillon". Mediterranees.net. 22 Maret 2008. Diakses tanggal 1 Februari 2014. ^ Feldhausen, Ingo (2010). Sentential Form and Prosodic Structure of Catalan. John Benjamins B.V. p. 5. ISBN 9789027255518. ^ Antoni Pladevall i Font: El Romànic català. A El llibre d'or de l'art català. ^ "Esports reconeguts". www.seleccions.cat. Diakses tanggal 13 September 2016. ^ "Firman acuerdo de colaboración gobierno de NL y Cataluña, España | Info7 | Nuevo León". Info7. Diakses tanggal 13 September 2013. ^ "Firman NL y Cataluña intercambio estratégico | Info7 | Nuevo León". Info7.mx. Diakses tanggal 13 September 2013. ^ José Lebeña Acebo. "VIDEO: Nuevo León y Cataluña, ¿tierras hermanas? – Publimetro". Publimetro.com.mx. Diakses tanggal 13 September 2013. ^ "Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 71 | Senate Office of International Relations". soir.senate.ca.gov. Diakses tanggal 13 September 2016. Artikel ini menyertakan teks dari suatu terbitan yang sekarang berada pada ranah publik: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Catalonia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber] Cari tahu mengenai Catalunya pada proyek-proyek Wikimedia lainnya: Definisi dan terjemahan dari Wiktionary Gambar dan media dari Commons Berita dari Wikinews Kutipan dari Wikiquote Teks sumber dari Wikisource Buku dari Wikibuku Panduan wisata di Catalonia dari Wikivoyage Generalitat de Catalunya Statuta Otonomi Catalunya Informasi statistik dari Idescat (Institut Statistik Katalan) [sembunyikan] l b s Komunitas otonom di Spanyol Bendera Spanyol Andalusia · Aragon · Asturias · Kepulauan Balears · Kepulauan Canaria · Cantabria · Castilla-La Mancha · Castilla y León · Catalunya · Extremadura · Galisia · Ini adalah cache Google' untuk http://tipsypilgrim.com/blog/category/sex/sex-in-catalonia. Gambar ini adalah jepretan laman seperti yang ditampilkan pada tanggal 25 Sep 2017 22:30:00 GMT. Sementara itu, halaman tersebut mungkin telah berubah. Pelajari Selengkapnya Versi lengkapVersi hanya teksLihat sumberKiat: Untuk mencari istilah penelusuran Anda di laman ini dengan cepat, tekan Ctrl+F atau ⌘-F (Mac) dan gunakan bilah cari. Start Here Total Contents Who did this? Contact Português Italiano Српски језик English Tipsy Pilgrim DRINK DRINKING AROUND THE WORLD DRINKING IN ALBANIA AND KOSOVO DRINKING IN AMERICA DRINKING IN BRAZIL DRINKING IN CATALONIA DRINKING IN FRANCE DRINKING IN GERMANY DRINKING IN SERBIA DRINKING IN SPAIN ALL DRINKING ARTICLES SEX SEX AROUND THE WORLD SEX IN ALBANIA SEX IN AMERICA SEX IN BRAZIL SEX IN CATALONIA SEX IN CHILE SEX IN FRANCE SEX IN GALICIA SEX IN RUSSIA SEX IN SPAIN SEX IN THE NETHERLANDS SEX IN THE SKY ALL SEX ARTICLES DIVERSIONS DIVERSIONS AROUND THE WORLD DIVERSIONS IN ALBANIA AND KOSOVO DIVERSIONS IN AMERICA DIVERSIONS IN BRAZIL DIVERSIONS IN CATALONIA DIVERSIONS IN FRANCE EATING IN FRANCE DIVERSIONS IN GALACTIC NAVIGATION DIVERSIONS IN ITALY DIVERSIONS IN LUSOPHONIA DIVERSIONS IN RUSSIA DIVERSIONS IN SERBIA DIVERSIONS IN THE WINTER ALL DIVERSIONS ARTICLES FLUENT IN 20 MINUTES FAKING IT THROUGH ANY LANGUAGE LEARNING “FOR REAL” LEARNING WHILE DRINKING: THE ADVANTAGE AMERICAN ENGLISH BOSNIAN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE CATALAN (FOR DEFECATING) CATALAN (FOR INANIMATE OBJECTS) FRENCH (NOISES) FRENCH (YOUTH) GALICIAN (FOR PICKING UP GIRLS) NEAPOLITAN RUSSIAN SERBIAN SICILIAN ALL LANGUAGE ARTICLES Dancing Samba de Gafieira Forró As Badly as Paulistas With Catalans, While Drinking The Essentials for Minimalist Nomads Posts in category SEX IN CATALONIA LINGUISTICSSEX IN CATALONIA Pickup lines to score you hot Catalan girls Ini adalah cache Google' untuk https://chaturbate.com/. 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[91 tokens remaining] 114 mins, 449 viewers shadowwn's chat room HD shadowwn 20 50 for fuck #tokenkeno #bigass #feet #blowjob #new #sex 86 mins, 432 viewers prev 1 2 3 4 ... 37 next Recent Blog Posts: (see all blog posts) DaveSlick's Spotlight Meet the man behind the name. Get an inside look at what it's like to be DaveSlick. Read more Evaella's Spotlight She has a fetish for role-play that drives her fans wild. Read more Tawney's Spotlight There is no end to the amount of fun packaged up in this roller derby queen. Read more Chaturbate Blog Checkout our HOT model interviews and keep informed on Chaturbate updates as they happen! View blog Close HIDE ALL ADS NOW Powered by ExoticAds Buy/Sell Traffic Powered by ExoticAds Buy/Sell Traffic Powered by ExoticAds Buy/Sell Traffic YOU MUST BE OVER 18 AND AGREE TO THE TERMS BELOW BEFORE CONTINUING: This website contains information, links, images and videos of sexually explicit material (collectively, the “Sexually Explicit Material”). 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They’re gorgeous, laid back, kinda grungy, and infinitely sweet.* So what do you gotta do to bang, smooch, or … Read more 3 Comments The Most Commented PostsWhat’s Got Tipsy Readers Riled Up? 161 Why Portuguese is the Best Language for Music 95 “Marry me, darling, for I have cows!” — picking up girls in a disappearing tongue 33 On Learning Just Enough Bosnian Slang to Toast, Gripe, and Propose Marriage 28 Claro, You Can Dance Forró Around the World: A Comprehensive, Updated List 20 The Rise of Forró: An Earthy Couples Dance from the Brazilian Hinterland Becomes an International Sensation About Tipsy Pilgrim is the miscellaneous guide to drinking games, sexual dalliance, and random amusing diversions from the great social traditions across the planet. Where and who? Written from the road in various countries by this guy who can be contacted here. I sometimes remember to insert an affiliate code when I recommend something on Amazon; clicking on my links before you buy something there doesn’t cost you extra, and you’ll have bought me a cheap road caipirinha or rakija. I also employ Skimlinks for some lovely automated monetization of the blog. Except as otherwise noted, all content is copyright © by Mose Hayward. No, you may not copy an article or photo and put it on your site, even if you credit me. These rights are strictly reserved and enforced. Madrid · Murcia · Navarra · La Rioja · Valencia · País Vasco Ceuta · Melilla · Plazas de soberanía Spain stub.png Artikel bertopik geografi Spanyol ini adalah sebuah rintisan. Anda dapat membantu Wikipedia dengan mengembangkannya. 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